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OljTntus Curtius Rufus 

Book VIII. (Chaps, ix.-xiv.) 

Edited for the Use of Schools, tuith Ititroduction, Notes, 
and Vocabulary, by 

C. J. Phillips, M.A. 


Macmillan and Co., Limited 

New York : The Macmillan Company 

All rights fesst'ved 



i c 



The cliief authorities which have been consulted in 
the preparation of this little edition are : 

(1) Zumpt's edition (1849) of Quintus Curtius. 

(2) Mr. J. W. M'Crindle's ' The Invasion of India 
by Alexander the Great.' 

(3) 'Quintus Curtius,' Book VIII. (Chaps, ix.-xiv.) 
and Book IX., by Messrs. W. E. Heitland, M.A., and 
T. E. Raven, B.A. 

(4) 'Alexander the Great,' by the President of 
the University of California, in the ' Heroes of the 
Nations ' series. 

(5) 'Philip and Alexander of Macedon,' by Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth. 

The text is that of Vogel, 1880. 


Alexander, known to History as 'Alexander the 
Great,' succeeded to the throne of Macedonia in the 
month of August, 336 B.C. His father was Philip of 
IMacedon ; his mother was Olympias, daughter of 
the neighboiiring Prince of Epirus ; his tutor was 

Of the personal influences which afl'ected his early 
years these three were the most potent. No one 
of course can undertake at this distance of time to 
give any detailed account of what it Avas that 
Alexander learnt from Aristotle ; but the fact that 
the greatest man of action in the ancient world was 
the pupil of its greatest thinker will alwa3^s remain 
one of the most suggestive coincidences in History. 

Olympias was, we know, a woman of fierce and 
even barbarous passions. On one occasion when 
Alexander returned from an expedition beyond his 
border he found that she had ordered the child of 
Philip's other wife. Cleopatra, to be murdered in its 
'' ix 


mother's arms. When we read of the murder of Clitus, 
or of the extravagant mourning for Hephaestion, we 
are reminded that Alexander was the son of Olympias 
no less than the son of Philip. 

To his father Alexander owed two things pre- 
eminently : his throne and his army. Philip is 
rightly known as 'Philip of Maccdon.' When he 
came to the throne he found Macedonia a loosely 
knit confederacy of half-civilised clans, threatened on 
all sides by powerful neighbours, and looked upon 
by the historic cities of the south — Athens and 
Sparta, Corinth and Thebes — as hardly belonging in 
any real sense to the world of Hellas. 

When he died he left Macedonia not merely a 
nation, but the most formidable military power in 
the Balkan peninsula; and he, the King of Macedonia, 
after twenty years of intrigue, corruption and open 
violence — culminating in the defeat of Athens and 
Thebes at Chaeronea — had got himself recognised as 
War-Lord, or Captain-General, of all Greece. 

It was this position — or rather the claim to this 
position — that Philip bequeathed to his son. 

His second legacy was more valuable still. He 
left him the instrument by means of which all this 
had been accomplished, the army. In this force 
the most prominent arm was the heavy cavalry. 
Alexander seems to begin nearly all his big battles 
with a charge of caA'alry against the enemy's left, 


followed up by infantry advance in the centre. In 
no instance did this charge fail to break the opposing 
line. Conspicuous among the cavalry are ' the com- 
panions,' a body of highly trained horsemen, some 
2,000 strong ; and amongst the ' companions ' again 
we hear of a specially selected squadron known as 
the 'agema.' 

The infantry was organised on the basis of the 
phalanx. This formation seems to have been a 
development of the idea first conceived by the Theban 
General Epaminondas, who broke the battle-line of 
the Spartans at Leuctra by a charge of spearmen 
formed into a wedge, 20 to 30 deep, and advancing 
shoulder to shoulder. 

Alexander's phalanx, which was probably Philip's 
too, has a more open formation than the Thebans 
had employed. It is trained to break up at the word 
of command into smaller units and to re-form without 
delay or confusion. The men belonging to it are 
armed with the 'sarissa,' a heavy pike some 1.3 or 
14 feet in length, and are accustomed to long and 
rapid marches. 

In addition to these two definite legacies Alexander 
had received from his father a practical training in 
the arts of diplomacy and war. It was he who was 
sent, after Chaeronea, to Athens with the veteran 
Antipater to arrange the terms on which peace was 
to be concluded ; and before this he had been left 


for iicaily two j'cars at the head of the government 
at home while Fhilij) was campaigning in eastern 

He was not destined, however, to enter upon his 
inheritance without a struggle. On the contrary his 
position was full of difliculties. The news of Philip's 
assassination was received with extravagant joy by 
the Greek cities in the south, especially at Athens 
and at Thebes. Thebes was kept in awe to a certain 
extent by the presence of a Macedonian garrison in 
the citadel, but at Athens, on the motion of Demos- 
thenes, the murderer, Pausanias, was declared a 
public benefactor. Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica and 
the Peloponnese hastened to reassert their inde- 
pendence, Avhile the tribes along the northern frontiers 
of Macedon, in Thrace, Illyria and Paeonia, openly 
disavowed the rather vague allegiance which Philip 
had claimed from them. We must remember also 
that there were two other pretenders to the succes- 
sion, and that Alexander himself was barely twenty 
years old. Everything depended upon the personality 
of the young king. 

He acted with decision and rapidity. At the heac 
of 25,000 men he marched quickly and quietly south. 
Thessaly was overawed. Passing Thermopylae he 
had crossed Boeotia and was between Athens and 
Thebes almost before the Athenians had finished 
their rejoicings for his father's death. No attempt 


at anything like armed resistance could be made, 
and by November Alexander had won for himself — 
at any rate for the present — all that his father had 
held or claimed in the south. 

In the spring of 335 he turned north, forced the 
Shipka Pass and advanced as far as the Danube. 
After crossing and recrossing this river he turned 
westwards and marched along his northern borders 
into Illyria. By mid-summer Clitus, the King of 
lllyria, and his allies had been crushed, and Pelion, 
the capital, destroyed. 

Meanwhile a report had gone abroad that Alexander 
was dead. Once again Athens and Thebes, aided 
this time by funds from the Persian treasury, made 
an effort to throw off the Macedonian yoke. Thebes 
attacked its garrison and kept them besieged in the 
Kadmea, the ancient citadel. Athens set to work to 
arm her neighbours and herself for the struggle. 

More rapidly even than before Alexander came 
down again into the south. Thebes was stormed ; 
every building in the city, except the house of 
Pindar, the one Theban poet known to history, was 
destroyed, and most of the inhabitants were sold 
into slavery. 

Athens humbly begged for pardon, which Avas 
contemptuously granted. By September in 335 
Alexander had made himself secure at home, and was 
ready to turn his thoughts towards Persia and the East. 

xiv ixrnoDucTio.v. 

In the spring of 334 he set out for Asia, leaving 
Antipater to represent him at home. He made his 
\\ay, at the head of about 5,000 horse and 30,000 
foot, along the coast of Thrace to Sestos At this 
point he crossed the Hellespont and joined a Mace- 
donian force, which had been waiting for him \mder 
the command of Parmenion, at Abydos on the 
Asiatic shore. His first encounter with the enemy 
was at the passage of the river Granicus, which he 
forced in the face of a mixed Persian and Greek 
army numbering some 40,000 men. This victory 
laid the whole of north-western Asia Minor at his 
feet ; but instead of following it up by an advance 
into the heart of the Persian Empire, he turned south 
and proceeded to secure the enemy's strongholds, 
especially the sea-board cities, along the western 
coast. Sardis and Ephesus opened their gates to 
him, Miletus and Halikarnassus he took by storm. 
During the autumn he continued his advance along 
the coasts of Lycia and Pamphylia, and then, turning 
north, he marched through Pisidia into Phrygia. 

Early in the next year (333 B.C.) he came down 
again to the sea and made his way along the coast of 
Cilicia. By this time Alexander's plan of campaign 
had become clear. The Persians were most to be 
dreaded at sea, for they could cor mand the services 
of the famous fleets of Phoenicia ; while Alexander 
had but a few ships of his own, and could not rely 


upon the loyalty of the chief maritime power of 
Greece, the Athenian navy. His plan apparently 
was to get into his hands every port on the western 
coasts of Asia, so that the Persian fleets should be 
unable to put in anywhere for provisions or repairs. 
By the autumn of 333 B.C. this plan had been so far 
carried out that he held every sea coast town and 
every harbour on the west and southern coasts of 
Asia Minor. 

In November of this year he fought the second of 
his three great battles with the armies of Persia. 
Darius, the Persian Emperor, with a force of 100,000 
cavalry and half a million infantry, had marched out 
of Babylon and come to find the Macedonians at 
Issus, a little town in tht; south-east corner of Asia 

In the battle which followed the Persians were 
again defeated, no part of their army being able to 
withstand the heavy cavalry which Alexander led 
in person. Darius fled, leaving his wife and children, 
his stores and treasure, in the hands of the conqueror. 

The battle of Issus — important though its eff"ects 
obviously were — was not allowed by Alexander to 
interrupt the carrying-out of his original design, the 
isolation of the Persian navy from the western ports. 
Accordingly^ the next year (332 B.C.) was spent in 
reducing the seacoast cities of Syria. Of these the 
most important was Tyre, which held out against 


him from January till August. Gaza was ca])Lurc(l 
in Novcnil>er. From Syria he passed on into Egypt, 
where he was welcomed as a deliverer from the 
Persians. Here — on a site selected by himself — be 
founded the city which was afterwards to be so 
famous as Alexandria. The first part of his design 
was now completed. He had destroyed the Persian 
sea power, set up a new centre for the trade of the 
Mediterranean, and twice defeated the armies of 
Darius in the open field. 

In the following year (331 B.C.) he began his direct 
advance into the east. Leaving Egypt he retraced 
his steps through Syria, and, after a halt at Tyre, 
turned eastwards towards the Euphrates, which he 
crossed, apparently in July. Darius, at the head of 
a still larger army than before — ^it is said on good 
authority to have numbered over a million men — was 
waiting near the little village of Gaugamela, some- 
what east of the Tigris and not far from the site of 

The battle — known alwaj's as the battle of Arbela 
— was fought on the 1st of October. In spite of his 
overwhelming superiority in numbers, and of the fact 
that the ground had been specially chosen so as to 
allow that superiority its full effect, Darius was once 
more defeated. At one moment, indeed, the Mace- 
donian left, under Parmenion, was cut off" from the 
right and seemed in danger of being surrounded. 


But the Persian centre and left had both already 
been broken and put to flight, and nothing was 
gained by the temporary success of their right except 
that by means of it Darius was given time to escape. 

All central Persia now lay open to Alexander. He 
entered Babylon and then Susa. The winter he 
t)assed at Persepolis, where, as a formal act of retribu- 
tion for the destruction of Athens by Xerxes 150 
years before, he burnt the royal palace. 

In the spring of 330 B.C. he set out once more in 
pursuit of Darius, who was said to be awaiting him 
at Ecbatana, the ancient capital of Media, but was 
found to have fled eastwards in company with Bessus, 
the ambitious Satrap of Baktria. AVith a small but 
mobile force Alexander pushed on rapidly in pursuit, 
only to come at last upon the dead body of Darius. 
The Persian Emperor had been murdered by Bessus. 
After visiting Hyrcania, on the south-east shore of 
the Caspian sea, and making many inquiries as to the 
sea itself, he set out in pursuit of Bessus, who had 
now openly set himself up under the title of 
Artaxerxes, as the successor of Darius, and had 
been joined by several of the late emperor's Satraps. 
Among these adherents were Satibarzanes, who first 
submitted to Alexander and then rebelled, and 
Barzaentes, whose capture is mentioned by Curtius 
in chapter 13. Bessus was captured and put to 
death in the spring of 329 B.C. The next two years 


Alexander spent in 8ul)cluing Baktria and Sogdiana, 
the two outlying Satrapies in the north-east corner of 
the Persian P]nipire. Nowhere else throughout the 
whole campaign was such formidaljle resistance 
offered to the Macedonian conqueror as here. It 
was not until the summer of 327 that he was able 
to turn his back upon the North and begin his 
advance towards India. 

Crossing the Hindu Kush he made his way down 
into the valley of the Kabul river, where he seems to 
have spent the rest of the summer. In the autumn 
he continued his advance. Part of his army, under 
Perdiccas and Hephaestion, was sent through the 
Khyber Pass Avith orders to build a bridge over the 
Indus. The other part Alexander himself led round 
by the Chitral passes and down again to Attock, 
where he rejoined Hephaestion. The Indus was 
crossed early in 326 B.C., and in May of the same 
year the battle with Porus was fought. After this 
Alexander advanced as far as the Sutlej, and would 
no doubt have gone on further still ; but his army 
declined, respectfully but firmly, to follow him any 
further east, and — much to his chagrin — he was 
forced to turn back. On his return journey he 
determined to explore the Indus down to the ocean, 
and to find out whether it would not be possible to 
travel from India to Persia by sea. A fleet was 
built, and in it one division of the army sailed, or 


rowed, down the Hydaspes and the Acesines into the 
Indus, while the other divisions marched along the 
banks on the right and left. On reaching the Indus 
he sent oflF about a third of his total force, under 
Craterus, to make their way back to Persia viA 
Kandahar, while he himself with the rest continued 
to descend towards the sea-coast. Patala, at the apex 
of the Indus delta, was reached in the summer of 325. 
Here Alexander once more divided his forces. 
Nearehus with the ships was to wait till the south- 
west monsoon should be over and then to sail along 
the coast towards the Persian Gulf. Alexander with 
some 30,000 men would march through the Gedrosian 
desert, preparing stores of provisions at various 
points in the route for the fleet to pick up later on, 
and wait for Nearehus at Bunder-Abbas. After 
nearly three months of marching along the desert 
coast of Baluchistan — during which the army suffered 
terribly from want of water — Alexander arrived in 
Carmania, where he was met by Craterus. Nearehus 
with the fleet arrived at Bunder-Abbas in December, 
and b}' the spring of 324 B.C. Alexander was back at 
Susa. The rest of the year was spent in organising 
the administration of the empire and in remodelling 
the army. 

What plans for the future he had formed we 
cannot say with any certainty, but there is some 
reason to believe that he had in his mind an 


expedition to Arabia, the exploration of the Caspian 
Sea, and, possibly, some movement into the west of 
Europe. At Babylon on June the 13th, 323 r..c., he 
died — not quite thirty-three years old. 

One of his last public acts was the celebration of a 
solemn marriage between the East and the West. He 
himself married Statira, the eldest daughter of 
Darius, and each of his great officers— nearly a 
hundred in all — took some distinguished lady of the 
Persian aristocracy to wife. In this ceremony some 
historians have seen the most significant symbol of 
Alexander's central purpose. He did not mean to 
subjugate Asia to Europe. AMierever it was possible 
he left the machinery of Oriental government intact. 
In many cases he entrusted that machinery to the 
very men who had controlled it under Darius. He 
seems never to have interfered with the social or 
religious customs with which he came into contact in 
the East. On the other hand he left behind him, 
almost wherever he went, cities of the Western type 
inhabited mostly by Greeks. 

By such means he hoped that the East and the West 
might come to know and to understand each other, 
and that both might be united in a single organisation 
of which he himself should be the head. 



Who Quintus Cartius was, or even when he lived, 
nohody seems to know. 

Tacitus, in the Xlth book of the Annals (c. 21), 
gives the following characteri?tic account of a certain 
Curtius Rufus, who seems to have held a military 
command in Germany in the year 44 A.D. : " De 
origine Curtii Rufi, quern gladiatore genitum quidam 
prodidere, neque falsa prompserim et vera exsequi 
pudet. Postquam adolevit, sectator quaestoris cui 
Africa obtigerat, dum in oppido Adrumeto vacuis 
per medium diei porticibus secretus agitat, oblata ei 
species muliebris ultra modum humanum et audita 
est vox 'tu es, Rufe, qui in banc provinciam pro 
consule venies.' Tali omine in spem sublatus 
degressusque in urbem largitione amicorum, simul acri 
ingenio quaesturam et mox nobiles inter candidatos 
praeturam principis sufFragio adsequitur, cum hisce 
verbis Tiberius dedecus natalium eius velavisset : 
' Curtius Rufus videtur mihi ex se natus.' Longa post 
haec senecta, et adversus superiores tristi adulations, 
adrogans minoribus, inter j)ares difficilis, consulare 
imperium, triumphi insignia ac postremo Africam 
obtinuit ; atque ibi defunctus fatale praesagium 


The story about the apparition and its prophecy is 
repeated by the younger Pliny in a letter to his friend 
Sura. It has been claimed that, if this Curtius Kufus 
had been the historian, Tacitus or Pliny would have 
been sure to mention the fact, but this by itself seems 
hardly conclusive evidence against the identity. 

Some authorities have thought it probable that the 
Curtius Rufus mentioned by Tacitus was the father of 
our author. Suetonius in his book " De claris 
rhetoribus" gives a list of the rhetoricians who had 
been prominent in Rome down to his own day, and 
among them occurs the name of ' Quintus Curtius 

We can well believe that our author was at any- 
rate a student of rhetoric, and it is quite likely that 
he lived in the first or second century A.D., but there 
really is not enough evidence to warrant any more 
definite statement about him. 

His value as a historian is probably not very great. 
There is no reason to doubt that he was honest and 
impartial in his judgments or that he was conscientious 
in his use of the materials that were before him. 
Obviously, however, he knew but little of the places 
which he describes, and there is a noticeable want of 
clearness and connection in his accounts of battles and 
marches. As a writer, on the other hand, he has 
considerable charm. Though his style is artificial it 
is easy and interesting ; and he certaiidy has the 


power to bring his separate scenes vividly before the 

Such scenes are his description of the Bacchanalian 
festival on Mount Meros, the thunderstorm on the 
Jhelam, the attack on the rock Aornis, or the look 
of the elephants in the Indian battle line. 


Cap. IX. 

Sed, ne otiiim serendis lainioribus natuni aleret, in i 
Indiam movit, semper liello quaiii post victoriani 
clarior. India tota ferme spectat orientem, minus 2 
in latitudinem quam recta regione spatiosa. Quae 3 
austrum accipiunt, in altius terrae fastigium excedunt : 
plana sunt cetera multisque inclitis amnibus Caucaso 
monte ortis placidum per campos iter praebent. 
Indus gelidior est quam ceteri : aquas vehit a colore 4 
maris baud multum abhorrentes. Ganges, omnium 5 
ab Oriente fluvius eximius, ad meridianam regionem 
decurrit et magnorum montium iuga recto alveo 
stringit : inde eum obiectae rupes inclinant ad orien- 
tem. Alter, qui Rubro mari accipitur, Indus, ripas 6 
multasque arbores cum magna soli parte exsorbet, 
saxis quoque inpeditus, quis crebro reverberatur : 
ubi moUius solum reperit, stagnat insnlasqire molitiu'. 7 

§ A 

2 QUINTUS CURTIUS liUFUS. [.ap. ix. 

8 Acesines eum auget: decursurum in mare /w^^m-s- iiitor- 
cipit magno<iue inotii amnis uterque colliditur: quippe 
asperum os influcnti obicit nee repcreussae aquae 

9 cedunt. Diardines minus celeber auditu est, quia per 
ultima Indiae cnrrit : ceterum non crocodilos modo 
uti Nil us scd etiam delphinos ignotasque aliis genti- 

10 bus beluas alit. Etymandrus, crebris flexibus subinde 
curvatus, ab accolis rigantibus carpitur : ea causa est, 
cur tenues reliquias iam sine nomine in mare emittat. 

11 Multis praeter hos amnibus tota regio dividitur, sed 

12 igtiolnlibus, quia non adeo nofa interfluunt. Ceterum 
quae propiora sunt niari, aquilone maxime deuruntur: 
is cohibitus iugis montium ad interiora non penetrat; 

13 ita alendis frugibus mitia. Sed adeo in ilia plaga 
mundus statas temporum vices mutat, ut, cum alia 
fervore solis exaestuant, Indiam nives obruant, riu-sus- 
que, ubi cetera rigent, illic intolerandus aestus existat. 

14 Nee, cur ibi se natura verterit, patet causa. Maro 
certe, quo adluitur, ne colore quidera abhorret a 
ceteris. Ab Erythro rege inditum est nomen, propter 
quod ignari rubere aquas credunt. 

1 5 Terra lini ferax : inde plerisque sunt vestes. Libri 
arborum tcneri baud secus quam chartae litterarum 

16 notas capiunt. Aves ad imitandum humanae vocis 
sonum dociles sunt, animalia invisitata ceteris genti- 
bus nisi invecta. Eadem terra rhinocerotas alit, non 

17 generat. Elephantorum maior est vis, quam quos in 
Africa domitant, et viribus magnitudo respondet. 

§§8-27.] LIBEE VIII. 3 

Aurum flumina vehuiit, quae leni modicoque lapsu i8 
segues aquas ducunt. Gammas margaritasque mare 19 
litoribus infundit : neque alia illis maior opulentiae 
causa est, utique postquam vitiorum commercium 
vulgavere in exteras gentes : quippe aestimantur 
purgamenta exacstuantis freti pretio, quod libido con- 
stituit. Ingenia hominum, sicut ubique, apud illos 20 
locorum quoque situs format. Corpora usque pedes 21 
carbaso velant, soleis pedes, capita linteis vinciunt, 
lapilli ex auribus pendent, brachia quoque et lacertos 
auro colunt, quibus inter populares aut nobilitas aut 
opes eminent. Capillum pectunt saepius, quam ton- 22 
dent, mentum semper intonsum est, reliquam oris 
cutem ad speciem levitatis exaequant. Eegum tamen 23 
luxuiia, quam ipsi magnificentiam appellant, super 
omnium gentium vitia. Cum rex semet in publico con- 
spici patitur, tui'ibula argentea ministri ferunt totum- 
que iter, per quod ferri destinavit, odoribus conplent. 
Aurea lectica margaritis circunipendentibus recubat, 24 
distincta sunt auro et purpura carbasa, quae indutus 
est : lecticam sequuntur armati corporisque custodes, 
inter quos ramis aves pendent, quas cantu seriis rebus 25 
obstrepere doeuerunt. Regia auratas columnas habet : 26 
totas eas vitis auro caelata percurrit aviumque, 
quarum visu maxima gaudent, argantaaa effigies 
opera distinguunt. Regia adauntibus patet, cum 27 
capillum pectit atqua ornat : tunc responsa legationi- 
bus, tunc iura popularibus raddit. Demptis soleis 


2S odorilnis iMlinuntur pedes. V'eiiatns maxinius laltor 
est incliisa vivario animalia inter vota cantus^jue 
pelicum figcre : binuni cuyjitorum sagittae sunt, quas 
emittunt maiore nisu quam effectu, quippe telum, 
cuius in levitate vis onmis est, inhabili pondere oncra- 

29 tur. Breviora itinera cquo conficit : longior ul»i 
expeditio est, elephanti vehunt currum et tantaiuin 
bcluarum corpora tota contcgunt auro. Ac ne quid 
perditis nioribus desit, lecticis aureis pelicum longus 
ordo sequitur : separatum a reginae ordine agmen est 

30 aequatque luxuriam. Feminae epulas parant. Ab 
isdem vinum ministratur, cuius omnibus Indis largus 
est usus. ' Regem mere somnoque sopitum in cubicu- 
lum polices referunt, patrio carmine noctium invocan- 

31 tes deos. Quis credat inter haec vitia curara esse 
sapientiae? Unum agi-este et horridum genus est, 
quod sapientes vocant. Apud bos occupare fati diem 

32 pulchrum et vivos se cremari iubent, quibus aut segnis 
aetas aut incommoda valitudo est. Expectatam mor- 
tem pro dedecore vitae habent nee ullus corporibus, 
quae senectus solvit, honos redditur : inquinari putant 

33 ignt^rii, nisi qui spirantes recipit. Illi, qui in urbibus 
publicis moribus degunt, siderum motus scite spectare 
dicuntur et futura praedicere. Nee quemquam ad- 
movere leti diem credunt, cui expectare interrito 

34 liceat. Deos putant, quidquid colere coeperunt, 

35 arltores maxime, quas violare capital est. Menses 
in <£uinos denos discripserunt dies, anni plena spatia 

§§28-37,1.-,.] LIBER VI 11. 5 

servuutur. Lunae cursu uotaiit tempoia, non, ut 36 
plerique, cum orbem sidus inplevit, sed cum se curvare 
coepit in cornua, et idcirco bieviores habent menses, 
quia spatium eorum ad liuiic lunae modum dirigunt. 
Multa et alia traduntur, quibus morari ordinem rerum 37 
baud sane opcrac videbatur. 

Cap. X. 

Tgitur Ak'xaiidro finis ludiae ingrcsso gentium 1 
suaruni reguli occurrerunt imperata facturi, ilium ter- 
tium love genitum ad ipsos pervenisse memorantes : 
Patrem Liberum atque Herculem fama cognitos esse, 
ipsum coram adesse cernique. Rex benigne exceptos 2 
sequi iussit, isdem itinerum ducibus usurus. Ceterum 
cum amplius nemo occurreret, Hephaestionem et Per- 
diccan cum copiarura parte praemisit ad subigeudos, 
qui aversarentur imperium, iussitque ad fiumen Indum 
procedere et navigia facere, quis in ulteriora trans- 
portari posset exercitus. Illi, quia plura flumina 3 
supei'anda erant, sic iunxere naves, ut solutae plaus- 
tris vehi possent rursusque coniungi. Post se Cratero 4 
cum phalange iusso sequi equitatum ac levem arma- 
turam eduxit eosque, que occurrerent, levi proelio 
in urbem proximam conpulit. lam supervenerat 
Craterus. Itaque ut principio terrorem incuteret 5 
genti nondum arma Macedonum expertae, praecipit, 
ne cui parceretur, munimentis ui-bis, quam obsidebat, 

6 QUINTUS (JUIiTJrs liUl'US. [,AP. N. 

6 incensis. Ceterum, dum obeijuitat moenibus, sagitta 
ictus. Cepit tamcn oppidum et omnibus incolis eius 
trucidatis etiam in tccta saevitum est. 

7 lude domita ignobili gente ad Nysam urbcm 
pervenit. Forte castris ante ipsa moenia in silvestri 
loco positis nocturiiura frigus vehementius quam alias 
hoiTore corpora adfecit opportunumque remediuni 

8 ignis oblatum est : caesis quippe silvis flaramam 
excitaverunt. Quae igni alito opi)idanorura sepulcra 
conprehendit. Vetusta cedro erant facta concep- 
tumque ignem late fudere, donee omnia solo aequata 

9 simt. Et ex urbe primum canum latratus, deinde 
etiam hominum fremitus auditus est. Tunc et 
oppidani liostem et Macedones ad urbem ipsos 

10 venisse cognoscunt. lamque rex eduxerat copias et 
moenia obsidebat, cum hostium, qui discrimen tcmp- 
taverant, obruti telis sunt. Aliis ergo deditionem, 
aliis pugnara experiri placebat, quorum dubitatione 
conperta circumsideri tantum eos et abstineri caedibus 
iussit : tandemque obsidionis malis fatigati dedidere 

11 se. A Libero Patre conditos se esse dicebant et 

1 2 vera haec origo erat. Sita est sub radicibus montis, 
quem Meron incolae appellant. Inde Graeci men- 
tiendi traxere licentiam, lovis femine Liberum 

13 Patrem esse celatum. Rex situ montis cognito ex 
incolis cum toto exercitu praemissis commeatibus 
verticem eius ascendit. Multa hedera vitisque toto 
gignitur monte, multae perennes aquae manant. 

gg 6-20.] LIBER VI 1 1. 7 

Pomoriim quoque varii salubresque suci sunt sua 14 
sponte fortuitorum seminuin fruges humo nutrieiite. 
Lauri baccaris([ue et iuidac multa in illis rupibus 
agrestis est silva. Credo equidem non divino 15 
instinctu, sed lascivia esse provectos, ut passim 
hederae ac vitium folia decerperent redimitique 
fronde toto nemore similes bacchantibus vaga- 
rentui'. Vocibus ergo tot milium praesidem nemoris 16 
eius deum adorantium iuga montis collesque re- 
sonabant, cum orta licentia a paucis, ut fere fit, in 
omnes se repente vulgasset. Quippe velut in media 17 
pace per herbas adgestamque frondem prostravere 
corpora. Et rex fortuitam laetitiam non aversatus 
large ad epulas omnibus praebitis per x dies Libero 
Patri operatum liabuit exercitum. Quia neget 18 
eximiam quoque gloriam saepius fortimae quam 
virtutis esse beneficium 1 quippe ne epulantes 
(|uidem et sopitos mero adgredi ausus est hostis, 
baud secus bacchantium ululantiumque fremitu 
perterritus, quam si proeliantium clamor esset audi- 
tus. Eadem felicitas ab Oceano revertentes temu- 
lentos comissantesque inter ora hostium texit. 

Hinc ad regionem, quae Daedala vocatur, per- 19 
ventum est. Deseruerant incolae sedes et in avios 
silvestresque montes confugerant. Ergo Acadira 
transit aeque usta et destituta incolentium fuga. 
Itaque rationem belli necessitas mutavit. Divisis 20 
enim copiis plrribus simiil locis arma ostendit, 

8 QUINTUS CUIi'TWS HUFUS. [,...■. x. 

oppressiquc, ulii nun expcctaverant hostem, oniiii 

zi t'ladc pc'idomiti sunt. Ptolemacus plurimas urbes, 

Alexander niaximas cepit : rursusque, quas distribu- 

22 crat, copias iunxit. Superato deinde Choaspe amne 
Coenon in obsidione urbis opulcntae — Beira incolac 
vocant — relicjuit : ipse ad ' Mazagas venit. Nuper 
Assacauo, cuius regnum fuerat, demortuo regioni 

23 urbiquc praeerat mater eius Cleopliis. xxxviii 
luilia.peditura tuebantur urbem non situ solum, sed 
otiam opere muiiitam. Nam qua spectat orientem, 
cingitur amne torrenti, qui praeruptis utrimque ripis 

24 aditum ad urbem inpedit. Ad occideutem et a 
meiidie velut de industria rupes praealtas obniolita 
natura est, infra quas cavernae et voragines longa 
vetustate in altum cavatae iacent, quaque desinunt, 

25 fossa ingentis operis obiecta est. XXXV stadium 
murus urbem conplectitur, cuius iraa saxo, supcriora 
crudo latere sunt structa. Lateri vinculum lapides 
sunt, quos interposuere, ut duriori materiae fragilis 

26 incumberet, simulque terra liumore diluta. Ne tamen 
universa consideret moles, inpositae erant trabes 
\'alidae, quibus iniecta tabulata muros et tegebant 

27 et pervios fecerant. Haec munimenta contemplan- 
tem Alexandrum consiliique incertuni, quia nee 
cavernas nisi aggere poterat inplere nee tormenta 
aliter muris admovere, quidam e muro sagitta per- 

28 cussit eum. Forte in suram incidit telum : cuius 
spicule cvolso admoveri cquum iussit, quo vectus ne 

§§>ji-:r,.] LIBEn VII l. 9 

u))ligato i|uidcni vulncre luuid scgiiius dcstinata 
cxe(|uebatur. Ceteruin cum cms sauciuin penderet 29 
ct cniore siccato frigescens vuliius adgravaret dolorem, 
dixisse fertur se quidem lovis filium dici, sed corporis 
aegri vitia sentire. Non tamen ante se recepit in 30 
castra, quara cuncta perspexit et, quae fieri vellet, 
edixit. Ergo, sicut imperatum erat, alii extra urbeni 
tecta demoliebantur ingentemquc vim materiae 
faciendo aggeri detraliebant, alii magnarum arborum 
stipites cum ramis ac moles saxorum in cavernas 
deiciebant. lamque agger aequaverat summae fas- 31 
tigiiim terrae. Itaque turres ei'igebant, quae opei'a 
ingenti militum ardore intra nonum diem absoluta 
sunt. Ad ea visenda rex nondum obducta vulneri 
cicatrice processit laudatisque militibus admoveri 
niacliinas iussit, e quibus ingens vis telorum in pro- 
pugnatores efFusa est. Praecipue rudes talium 32 
operum terrebant mobiles turres tantasque moles 
ludla ope, quae cerneretur, admotas deorum numine 
agi credebant : pila quoque muralia et excussas 
tormentis praegraves hastas negabant convenire 
mortalibus. Itaque desperata urbis tutela conces- 33 
sere in arcem. Inde, quia nihil obsessis praeter 
deditionem patebat, legati ad regem descenderunt 
veniam petituri. Qua inpetrata regina venit cum 34 
magno nobilium feminarum grege aureis pateris vina 
libantium. Ipsa genibus regis parvo filio admoto 35 
non veniam modo, sed etiam pristinae fortunae 


36 inpetravit docus : quippo appellata rcgiiia est. Et 
credidere quidam plus formae quam miseratioui 
datum. Pucro certe postea ex ea utcumquc gciiito 
Alexandre f uit nomen. 

Cap. XI. 

1 Hinc Polypcrcon ad uiljcm Noram cum exercitu 
missus inconditos oppidanos proelio vicit : intra 
munimenta conpulsos secutus urbem in dicionem 

2 redegit. Multa ignobilia oppida deserta a suis 
venere in regis potestatem. Quorum incolae armati 
petram Aomin nomine occupaverunt. Hanc al) 
Hercule frustra obsessam esse terraeque motu co- 

3 actum aljsistere fama vulgaverat. Inopem consilii 
Alexandrum, quia undique praeceps et abrupta rupes 
erat senior quidam peritus locorum cum duobus filiis 
adiit, si pretium operae esset, aditum se monstra- 

4 turum esse promittens. Lxxx talenta constituit 
daturum Alexander et altero ex iuvenibus obside 
retento ipsum ad exequenda, quae obtulerat, dimisit. 

5 Le^dter armatis dux datus est Mylleas, scriba regis. 
Hos enim circuitu, quo fallerent bostem, in summum 

6 iugum placebat evadere. Petra non ut pleraeque, 
modicis ac mollibus clivis in sublime fastigium crescit, 
sed in metae maxim c modum erecta est, cuius ima 
spatiosiora sunt, altiora in artius coeunt, summa in 

7 acutum cacumen exurgunt. Radices eius Indus 

§S:w, M.S.] LIBEB VIIL 11 

aniiiis suhit, pracaltus, utrimque asperis ripis : ab 
altera parte voragineo eluviesque praeruptae sunt. 
Nee alia expugnandi patebat via, quam ut reple- 8 
rentiir. Ad manum silva erat, quam rex ita caedi 
iiissit, ut iiudi stipites iacerentnr, qiiippe rami fronde 
vestiti inpedissent ferentes. Ipse primus truncam 
arborem iecit clamorque exercitus, index alacritatis, 
secutus est nullo detrectante munus, quod rex occu- 
passet. Intra septimum diem cavernas expleverant, 9 
cum rex sagittarios et Agrianos iubet per ardua niti : 
iuvencsque promptissimos ex sua cohorte xxx delegit. 
l)uces his dati sunt Charus et Alexander, quem rex 10 
nominis, quod sibi cum eo commune esset, admonuit. 
Ac primo, quia tam manifestum periculum erat, ipsum 
regem discrimen subire non placuit : sed ut signum 1 1 
tuba datum est, vir audaciae promptae conversus ad 
corporis custodes sequi se iubet primusque invadit in 
rupem. Nee deinde quisquam Macedonum substitit 
relietisque stationibus sua sponte regem sequebantur. 
Multorum miserabilis fuit casus, quos ex praerupta 12 
rupe lapses amnis praeterfluens hausit, triste spec- 
taculum etiam non periclitautibus : cum vero alieno 
exitio, quid ipsis timendum foret, admonerentur, in 
metum misericordia versa non extinctos, sed seme- 
tipsos deflebant. Et iam eo perventum erat, imde 13 
sine pernicie nisi victores redire non possent, ingentia 
saxa in subeuntes provolventibus barbaris, quis 
percnlsi instabili et lubrico gradu praecipites re- 

12 QUINT US CUliTIUS IlUFUS. [cap. xi. xn. 

14 cidcliant. Evascraiit t'lnieii Alexander et Charu.s, 
quos cum xxx delcctis pracmiserat rex, et iam 
pugnare comminus coeperant : sed cum superue tela 
barbari ingererent, saepius ipsi feriebantur quam 

15 vulnerabant. Ergo Alexander et nominis sui et 
promissi memor, dum acrius quam cautius dimicat, 

16 confossus undique obruitur. Quern ut Char us 
iacentem coiispexit, ruere in hostem omnium praeter 
ultionem immemor coepit multosque hasta, quosdam 
gladio interemit. Sed cum tot unum incesserent 

17 manus, super amici corpus procubuit exanimis. Haud 
secus, quam par erat, promptissimorum iuvenum 
ceterorumque militum interitu commotus rex signum 

iS receptui dedit. Saluti fuit, quod sensim et intrepidi 
se receperunt et barbari hostem depulisse contenti 

19 non institere cedentibus. Ceterum Alexander cum 
statuisset desistere incepto — quippe nulla spes poti- 
undae petrae offerebatur — tamen speciem ostendit in 
obsidione perseverantis, nam et itinera obsideri iussit 

20 et turres admoveri et fatigatis ab'os succedere. Cuius 
pertinacia cognita Indi per biduum quidem ac duas 
noctes cum ostentatione non fiduciae modo, sed etiam 
victoriae epulati sunt, tympana suo more pulsantes. 

21 Tertia vero nocte tympanorum quidem strepitus 
desierat audiri, ceterum ex tota petra faces refulge- 
bant, quas accenderant barbari, ut tutior esset ipsis 

22 fuga obscura nocte per invia saxa cursuris. Eex 
Balacro, qui specularetur, praemisso cognoscit petram 

§§i4-2o. 1-4.] LIBER VI II. 13 

fuga Indorum esse desertain. Turn dato signo, lit 
universi conclamarent, inconpositc fiigieiitil)us metuiu 
inenssit : multique, tamquam adesset hostis, per 23 
lu])rica saxa perque invias cotes praecipitati occide- 
runt, plures aliqua mcmbmrum parte mulcati ab 
integris deserti sunt. Eex locoruni niagis quam 24 
hostium victor tamen magnae victoriae speciem sacri- 
ficiis et cultu deum fecit. Arae in petra locatae sunt 
Minervae Victoriaeque. Ducibus itineris, quo subire 25 
iusserat leviter armatos, etsi promissis minora prae- 
stiterant, pretium cum fide redditum est, petrae 
regionisque ei adiunctae Sisocosto tutela permissa 

Cap. XII. 

Inde processit Ecbolima et, cum angustias itineris i 
obsideri XX milibus armatorum ab Erice quodam con- 
perisset, gravius agmen exercitus Coeno ducendum 
modicis itineribus tradidit. Ipse praegressus per 2 
funditores ac sagittai'ios deturbatis, qui obsederant 
saltum, sequentibus se copiis viam fecit. Indi, sive 3 
odio ducis sive gratiam victoris inituri, Ericen fugien- 
tem adorti interemerunt caputque eius atque arma ad 
Alexandrum detulerunt. Ille facto impunitatem 
dedit, honorem denegavit exemplo. 

Hinc ad fiumen Indum sextisdecumis castris pervenit 4 
oniniaque, ut praeceperat, ad traiciendum praeparata 
al) Hephaestione repperit. Regnabat in ea regione 


Omphis, qui patri quoque fuerat auctor dedendi reg- 

5 nuiu Alexaiidro et post mortem paientis legatos 
miricrat, qui con.sulcrent cum, regnare se interim 

6 vcllet an privatum opperiri eius adventum. Permisso- 
que, ut regnaret, non tamen ius datum usurparc 
sustinuit. Is benigne quidcm exceperat Hephae- 
stionem, gratuitum frumentum copiis eius admensus, 
non tamen ei occurrerat, ne fidem ullius nisi regis 

7 experiretur. Itaque venieuti obviam cum amiato 
exercitu egressus est, elephanti quoque per modica 
intervalla militum agmini inmixti procul castcUorum 

8 fecerant speciem. Ac primo Alexander non socium, 
sed hostem adventare credebat iamque et ipse arma 
milites capere et equites discedere in cornua iusserat, 
paratus ad pugnam. At Indus cognito Macedonum 
errore iussis subsistere ceteris ipse concitat equum, 
quo vehebatur : idem Alexander quoque fecit, sive 
hostis sive amicus occurrerat, vel sua virtute vel illius 

9 fide tutus. Coiere, quod ex utriusque vultu posset 
mtellegi, amicis animis : ceterum sine interprete non 
poterat conseri sermo. Itaque adhibito eo barbarus 
occurrisse se dixit cum exercitu totas imperii vires 
protinus traditurum nee expectasse, dum per nuntios 

10 daretur fides. Corpus suum et regnum permittere 
illi, quem sciret gloriae militantem nihil magis quam 
famam timere perfidiae. Laetus simplicitate barbari 
rex et dexteram, fidei suae pignus, dedit et regnum 

11 restituit. LVi elephanti erant, quos tradidit Alexan- 

§§5-18.] LIBER nil. 15 

dro, multaque pecora eximiae magnitudinis, tauros ad 
III niilia, pretiosum in ea regione acceptumque aiiimis 
regnantium armentum. Quaerenti Alexandro, plures 12 
agricultores haberet an milites, cum duobus regibus 
bellauti sibi maiore militum quam agrestium mam; 
opus esse respondit. Abisares et Porus erant, sed in 1 3 
Poro eminebat auctoritas. Uterque ultra Hydaspen 
amnem regnabat et belli fortunam, quisquis arma 
iiiferret, experiri decreverat. Omphis permittente 14 
Alexandro et regium insigne sumpsit et more gentis 
suae nomen, quod patris fuerat : Taxilen appellavere 
populares sequeute nomine imperium, in quemcumque 
transiret. Igitur cum per triduum hospitaliter Alex- 15 
andrum accepisset, quarto die et, quantum frumenti 
copiis, quas Hepbaestion duxerat, praebitum a se 
esset, ostendit et aureas coronas ipsi amicisque omni- 
bus, praeter haec signati argenti LXXX talenta dono 
dedit. Qua benignitate eius Alexander mire laetus 16 
et, quae is dederat, remisit et mille talenta ex praeda, 
quam vebebat, adiecit multaque convivaHa ex auro et 
argento vasa, plurimum Persicae vestis, xxx equos ex 
suis cum iisdem insignibus, quis adsueverant, cum 
ipsum veherent. Quae liberalitas sicut barbarum 17 
obstrinxerat, ita amicos ipsius vehementer offendit. E 
quibus Meleager super cenam largiore Adno usus 
gratulari se Alexandro dixit, quod saltem in India 
repperisset dignum talentis mille. Rex baud oblitus, 18 
quam aegre tulisset, quod Clitum ob linguae temerita- 

16 QUINTUS CURTIUS RCrFL\^. [cap. xm. 

torn occidissot, iram quidem tiiimit scd dixit, iiivido.s 
homines iiiliil hHikI nuam ipsorum esse tonrn'iila. 

Cap. XI it. 

1 Postero die legati Alnsarae adiere regcm. Omnia 
dicioni eius, ita ut mandatum erat, pennittebaiit 

2 firmataque invicem fide rcmittuntur ad regem. Porura 
quoque nominis sui fama ratus ad deditionem posse 
conpelli, misit ad eum Cleocharen, qui denuntiaret 
ei, ut stipendium penderet et in primo suorum 
finium aditu occurreret regi. Porus alterum ex his 
facturura sese respondit, ut intranti regnum suum 

3 praesto esset, sed armatus. lara Hydaspen Alexander 
superare decreverat, cum Barzaentes, defectionis 
Arachosiis auctor, vinctus trigintaque elephanti simul 
capti perducuntur, opportunum adversus Indos auxi- 
lium, quippe plus in beluis quam in exercitu spei ac 

4 virium illis erat. Samaxus quoque, rex exiguae 
partis Indorum, qui Barzaenti se coniunxerat, vinctus 

5 adductus est. Igitur transfuga et regulo in custodiara, 
elephantis autem Taxili traditis ad amnem Hydaspen 
pervenit, in cuius ulteriore ripa Porus consederat 

6 transitu prohibiturus hostem. CLXXX et v elephantos 
obiecerat eximio corporum robore ultraque eos currus 
CCC et peditum XXX fere milia, in quis erant sagittarii, 
sicuti ante dictum est, gravioribus telis, quam ut apte 

7 cxfuti possent. Ipsum vehebat elephantus super 

§§1-14.] LTBER VIIT. 17 

ceteras beluas eminons arniaque auro ct argento dis- 
tincta corpus rarae niagnitudinis honestabant. Par 
animus robori corporis et, quanta inter rudes poterat 
esse, sapientia. Macedonas non conspectus hostium 8 
solum, sed etiam fluminis, quod transeundum erat, 
magnitudo terrebat. iiii in latitudinem stadia diffu- 
sus profundo alveo et nusquam vada aperiente speciem 
vasti maris fecerat. Nee pro spatio aquarum late 9 
stagnantium impetum coercebat, sed quasi in artum 
coeuntibus ripis torrens et elisus ferebatur, occultaque 
saxa inesse ostendebant pluribus locis undae reper- 
cussae. Terribilior facies erat ripae, quam equi 10 
viri(|ue conpleverant. Stabant ingentes vastorum 
corporum moles et de industria inritatae horrendo 
stridore aures fatigaliant. Hinc amnis, hinc hostis u 
capacia quidem bonae spei pectora et saepe se experta 
iiiproviso tamen pavore percusserant Quippe insta- 
biles rates nee dirigi ad ripara nee tuto adplicari posse 
credebant. Erant in medio amne insulae ere brae, in 12 
quas et Indi et Macedones nantes levatis super capita 
armis transibant. Ibi levia proelia conserebantur et 
uterque rex parvae rei discrimine summae experie 
l)atur eventura. Ceterum in Macedonum exercitu 13 
temeritate atque audacia insignes fuere Symmachus 
et Nicanor, nobiles iuvenes et perpetua partium 
felicitate ad spernendum omne periculum accensi. 
Quis ducil)us promptissimi iuvenum lanceis modo 14 
armati transnavere in insulam, quam frequens hostis 


tenebat, multosque Indorum, nulla re melius quam 

15 audacia armati, interemerunt. Abire cum gloria 
poterant, si umquam temeritas f elix inveniret modum : 
sed dum supervenientcs contcmptim et superbe quo- 
que expectant, circumventi ab iis, qui occulti enave- 

16 rant, eminus obruti telis sunt. Qui effugerant hostem, 
aut impetu amnis ablati sunt aut verticibus inpliciti. 
Eaque pugna multum Fori fiduciam erexit cuncta 

17 cernentis e ripa. Alexander inops consilii tandem ad 
fallendum hostem talem dolum intendit. Erat insula 
in flumine amplior ceteris, silvestris eadem et tegendis 
insidiis apta. Fossa quoque praealta baud procul 
ripa, quam tenebat ipse, non pedites modo, sed etiam 

18 cum equis viros poterat abscondere. Igitur ut a 
custodia huius opportunitatis oculos hostium aver- 
teret, Ptolemaeum omnibus turmis obequitare iussit 
procul insula et subinde Indos clamore terrere, quasi 

19 flumen transnaturus foret. Per conplures dies Ptole- 
maeus id fecit eoque consilio Porum quoque agmen 
suum ei parti, quam se petere simulabat, coegit 

20 advertere. lam extra conspectum hostis insula erat. 
Alexander in diversa parte ripae statui suum taberna- 
culum iussit adsuetamque comitari ipsum cohortem 
ante id tabernaculum stare et omnem apparatum regiae 
magnificentiae hostium oculis de industria ostendi. 

21 Attalum etiam, aequalem sibi et baud disparem 
habitu oris et corporis, utique cum procul viseretur, 
veste regia exornat praebiturum speciem, ipsum 

§§15-27.] LIBER VIII. 19 

rogem illi ripac praesidere nee eogitare de transitu. 
Huius consilii eflfectum primo morata tempestas est, 22 
mox adiuvit, incommoda quoque ad bonos eventus 
vcrtente fortuna. Traicere amnem cum ceteris copiis 23 
in regionem insulae, de qua ante dictum est, parabat, 
averse hoste in eos, qui cum Ptolemaeo inferiorem 
obsederant ripam, cum procella imbrem vix sub tectis 
tolerabilem efFundit : obrutique milites nimbo in ter- 
ram refugerunt navigiis ratibusque desertis. Sed 
tumultuantium fremitus obstrepentibus ventis ab 
hoste non poterat audiri. Deinde momento temporis 24 
repressus est imber, ceterum adeo spissae intendere 
se nubes, ut conderent lucem vixque conloquentium 
inter ipsos facies noscitarentur. Terruisset alium 25 
obducta nox caelo, cum ignoto amne navigandum 
esset, forsitan hoste cam ipsam ripam, quam caeci 
atque inprovide petebant, tenente. At rex periculo 
gloriam accersens et obscuiitatem, quae ceteros terre- 
bat, suam occasionem ratus dato signo, ut omnes 26 
silentio ascenderent in rates, cam, qua ipse veheba- 
tnr, primam iussit expelli. Vacua erat ab hostibus 27 
ripa, quae petebatur, quippe adhuc Poms Ptolemaeum 
tantum intuebatur. Una ergo navi, quam petrae 
fluctus inliserat, haerente ceterae evadunt : armaque 
capere milites et ire in ordines iussit. 


Cap. xiv. 

1 Tamquc agmen in cornua divisum ipse ducobat, 
cum Poro nuiitiatur armis virisque ripam ohtineri et 
rerum adesse discrimen. Ac primo humani ingenii 
vitio spei suae indulgens Abisaren belli socium- et 

2 ita convenerat — adventare credebat. Mox liquidiore 
luce aperiente aciem hostium C quadrigas et HIT milia 
equitum vcnienti agmini obiecit. Dux erat copiarum, 
quas praemisit, Hages, frater ipsius, summa virium in 

3 curribus. Senos viros singuli vehcbant, duos clipeatos, 
duos sagittarios, ab utroque latere dispositos : aurigae 
erant ceteri, baud sane inermes, quippe iacula con- 
plura, ubi comniinus proeliandum erat, omissis babenis 
in bostem ingcrcbant. Ceterum vix ullus usus huius 

4 auxilii eo die fuit. Nanujue, ut supra dictum est, 
imber violentius quam alias fusus campos lubricos et 
inequitabiles feeerat gravesque et propemodum in- 
mobiles currus iiiluvie ac voraginibus haerebant. 

5 Contra Alexander expedito ac levi agmine strenue 
invectus est. Scythae et Dahae primi omnium in- 
vasere Indos, Perdiccam deinde cum equitibus in 

6 dextrum cornu hostium emisit. lam undique pugna 
se moverat, cum ii, qui currus agebant, illud ultimum 
auxilium suorum rati eflFusis babenis in medium dis- 
crimen mere coeperunt. Anceps id malum utristjue 

7 erat. Nam et Macedonum pedites primo impetu 
obterebantur et per lubrica atque invia inmissi currus 

§§M5.] LIBER VJII. 21 

excutiebant eos, a quibus regebantur: aliorum turbati 8 
equi non in voragiiies modo lacunasque, sed etiam in 9 
amnem praecipitavere curricula, pauci telis hostium 
exacti penetravere ad Porum acerrime pugnam cien- 
tem. Is, ut dissipates tola acie cuitus vagari sine 
rectoribus vidit, proximis amicoruni distribuit elepban- 
tos. Post eos posuerat peditem ac sagittarios et 10 
tympana pulsare solitos : id pro cantu tubarum Indis 
erat. Nee strepitu eorum movebantiu', olim ad notum 
sonum auribus mitigatis. Herculis simulacrum agmini 1 1 
peditum praeferebatur. Id maximum erat bellantibus 
incitamentum et deseruisse gestantes militare flagi- 
tium habebatur : capitis etiam sanxerant poenam iis, 1 2 
qui ex acie non rettulissent, metu, quern ex illo hoste 
quondam conceperant, etiam in religionem venera- 
tionemque converso. Macedonas non beluarum modo, 
sed etiam ipsius regis aspectus parumper inhibuit. 
Beluae dispositae inter armatos speciem turrium pro- 13 
cul fecerant, ipse Porus humanae magnitudinis prope- 
modum excesserat formam. Magnitudinem co/-pori 
adicere videbatur belua, qua vehebatur, tantum inter 
ceteras eminens, quanto aliis ipse praestabat. Itaque 14 
Alexander contemplatus et regem et agmen Indorum, 
'Tandem,' inquit, 'par animo meo periculum video. 
Cum bestiis simul et cum egregiis viris res est.' In- 15 
tuensque Coenon, ' Cum ego,' inquit, ' Ptolemaeo 
Perdiccaque et Hephaestione comitatus in laevum 
hostium cornu impetum fecero viderisque me in 

22 QUI NT US CURT I US liUFUS. [cai-. xiv. 

medio ardore certainiiiis, ipso dextrum move et tur- 
batis signa infer. Tu, Autigene, et tu, Leonnate, et 
Tauron, invehemini in mediam aciem et urgebitis 
i6 fiontem. Hastae nostrae praelongae et validae non 
alias magis quam adversus beluas rectoresque earum 
Usui esse poterunt : deturbate eos, qui vehuntur, et 
ipsas confodite. Anceps genus auxilii est et in suos 

17 acrius furit. In hostem enim imperio, in suo.s pavore 
agitur.' Haec elocutus concitat equum primus. lam- 
que, ut destinatum erat, invaserat ordines hostium, 
cum Coenus ingenti vi in laevum cornu invehitur. 

18 Phalanx quoque mediam Indorum aciem uno impetu 
perrupit. At Porus, qua equitem invehi senserat, 
beluas agi iussit : sed tardum et paene inmobile 
animal equorum velocitatem aequare non poterat. 

19 Ne sagittarum quidem ullus erat barbaris usus. 
Quippe longas ct pracgi-aves, nisi prius in terra statu- 
erent arcum, baud satis apte et commode inponunt : 
turn humo lubrica et ob id inpediente conatum 

20 molientes ictus celeritate hostium occupantur. Ergo 
spreto regis imperio — quod fere fit, ubi turbatis acrius 
metus quam dux imperare coepit — totidem erant 

21 imperatores, quot agmina errabant. Alius iungere 
aciem, alius dividere, stare quidam et nonnulli cir- 
cumvehi terga hostium iubebant. Nihil in medium 

22 consulebatur, Porus taraen cum paucis, quibus metu 
potior fuerat pudor, colligere dispersos, obvius hosti 
ire pergit elephantosque ante agmen suorum agi iubet. 

§§15-31.] LIBER VIII. 23 

Magiuun beluae iniecere terroiem iusolitusque stridor 23 
non equos modo, tarn pavidum ad omnia animal, sed 
viros quoque ordinesque turbaverat. lam fugae 24 
circumspiciebant locum paulo ante victores, cum 
Alexander Agrianos et Thracas leviter armatos, 
meliorem concursatione quam comminus militem, 
emisit in beluas. Ingentem hi vim telorum iniecere 25 
et elephantis et regentibus eos : phalanx quoque in- 
stare constanter territis coepit. Sed quidam avidius 26 
persecuti beluas in semet inritavere vulneribus. 
Obtriti ergo pedibus earum ceteris, ut parcius in- 
starent, fuere documentum. Praecipue terribUis ilia 27 
facies erat, cum manu arma virosque corriperent et 
super se regentibus traderent, Anceps ergo pugna 28 
nunc sequentium nunc fugientium elephantos in 
multum diei varium certamen extraxit : donee securi- 
bus — id namque genus auxilii pi-aeparatum erat — 
pedes amputare coeperunt. Copidas vocabant gladios 29 
leviter curvatos, falcibus similes, quis adpetebant 
beluarum manus. Nee quicquam inexpertum non 
mortis modo, sed etiam in ipsa morte novi supplicii 
timor omittebat. Ergo elephanti, vulneribus tandem 30 
fatigati, suos impetu sternunt et, qui rexerant eos, 
praecipitati in terram ab ipsis obterebantur. lamque 
pecorum modo magis pavidi quam infesti ultra aciem 
exigebautur : cum Porus, destitutus a pluribus, tela 31 
multo ante praeparata in circumfusos ex elephanto 
suo coepit ingerere multisque erainus vulneratis ex- 

24 QUINT US CURTIUS ItUFUS. [ca,.. x,v. 

32 positus ipse ;i(l ictus uiKlicpK! petcbatur. Novera 
iiim vuliK'iii hiiic tergo, illiiu; pectore cxcoperat 
imiltoquc sanguine profuso languidis iiianibus magis 

33 olapsa quam excussa tela mittebat. Nee segnius 
l)elua iustincta rabie, nondum saucia, invehebatur 
i»r(linil)us, donee rector beluae regem conspcxit fluenti- 
l)us nicmbris omissisque armis vix compotem mentis. 

34 Turn beluam in fugam eoncitat sequente Alexandre : 
sed equus eius multis vulnoribus confossus deficiens- 
que procubuit, posito raagis rege quam efFuso. Itaque, 

35 dura equum mutat, tardius insecutus est. Interim 
frater Taxilis, regis Indorum, praemissus ab Alexan- 
dre monere coepit Porum, ne ultima experiri perse- 

36 veraret dederetque se victori. At ille, quamquam 
exhaustae erant vires deficiebatque sanguis, tamen ad 
notam vocem excitatus, ' Adgnosco,' inquit, ' Taxilis 
fratrem, imperii regnique sui proditoris : ' et telum, 
quod unum forte non effluxerat, contorsit in eum, 

37 quod per medium pectus penetravit ad tergum. Hoc 
ultimo virtutis opere edito fugere acrius coepit, sed 
elephantus quoque, qui multa exceperat tela, deficie- 
bat. Itaque sistit fugam peditemque sequenti liosti 

38 obiecit. lam Alexander consecutus erat et pcrtinacia 
Pori cognita vetabat resistentibus parci. Ergo undi- 
que et in pedites et in ipsum Porum tela congesta 
sunt, quis tandem gravatus labi ex belua coepit. 

39 Indus, qui elephantum regebat, descendere eum ratus 
more solito elephantum procumbere iussit in genua : 

§§32-45.] LIBER Fill. 25 

qui ut sc subniisit, ceteri quoque — ita enim instituti 
erant — deraisere corpora in terrain. Ea res et Porum 
et ceteros victoribus tradidit. Kex spoliari corpus 40 
Fori, interemptum esse credens, iftbet et, qui detra- 
hcrent loricam vestemque, concurrere : cum belua 
douiiuum tueri et spoliantes coepit adpetere levatum- 
que corpus eius rursus dorso suo inponere. Ergo 
lelis undique obruitur confossoque eo in vehiculum 
Torus inponitur. Quern rex ut vidit adlevantem 41 
oculos, non odio, sed miseratione commotus, ' Quae, 
malum,' inquit, 'amentia te coegit rerum mearum 
cognita fama belli fortunam experiri, cum Taxilis 
esset in deditos clementiae meae tarn propinquum 
tibi exemplum'?' At ille, ' Quoniam,' inquit, 'per- 4.2 
contaris, respondebo ea libertate, quam interrogando 
f ecisti. Neminem me f ortiorem esse censebam. Meas 43 
enim noveram vires, nondum expertus tuas : f ortiorem 
esse te belli docuit eventus. Sed ne sic quidem parum 
felix sum, secundus tibi.' Rursus interrogatus, quid 
ipse \'ictorem statuere debere censeret, 'Quod hie,' 
inquit, ' dies tibi suadet, quo expertus es, quam 
caduca felicitas esset.' Plus monendo profecit, quam 44 
si precatus esset : quippe magnitudinem animi eius 
interritam ac ne fortuna quidem infractam non miseri- 
cordia modo, sed etiam honore excipere dignatus est. 
Aegrum curavit baud secus, quam si pro ipso pugnas- 45 
set : confirmatum contra spem omnium in amicorum 
numerum recepit, mox donavit ampliore regno, quam 


46 tcnuit. Nee sane quicquam ingenium eius solidius 
aut constantius habuit quaui admirationem verae 
laudis et gloria'e : simplicius tameii famam aestimalmt 
in hoste quam in (Jive. Quippe a suis credeVjat magni- 
tudinem suam destrui posse, eandem clariorem fore, 
quo maiores fuissent, quos ipse vieisset. 



§ 1. Sed ne ... aleret. etc. In the last chapter Curtius had 
been describing the temporary outburst of ill-feeling against 
Alexander which the execution of Callisthenes had produced. 
' Itaque,' he says, 'nullius caedes maiorem apud Graecos 
Alexandro excitavit invidiam.' 

serendis . natum, lit. 'born for,' so 'suitable to,' 'favour- 
able to the spreading of rumours.' 

movlt here is equivalent to ' movit se. ' This use of 
'moveo,' as an intransitive verb, is rare, though it is to be 
met with in Livy, e.g. xxxv. 40. 7. ' terra dies duodequa- 
draginta movit.' 

§ 2. India ... spatiosa, 'practically the whole of India faces 
the east (being) less extensive in breadth than in a straight- 
forward direction.' Curtius seems to mean that India was 
less extensive from north to south than from west to east. 
Probabh' he had little or no knowledge of the peninsula. 

§3. quae . . . accipiunt, 'the parts which receive the south 
wind' i.e. 'the southern districts.' Curtius often uses 
adjectives— as he uses ' quae ' here — in the neuter plural to 
express such ideas as ' parts ' ' districts ' etc. 

in altius . . . excedunt, ' rise to a considerably high level of 

cetera, 'the rest' i.e. 'the other parts,' 'cetera' is 
another instance of the vague use of neuter plurals, like 
' quae ' above. 



multlsque . . . praebent ; the nominative to 'jiraebent' 

must be ' cetera, ' anil the phrase ' multis . . . ortis ' is an 
ahhitive absolute exjiiessing instrumentality or condition. 
'And by means of many famous rivers, whicli rise in Mt. 
Caucasus, otFer an easy route through the plains.' 'Caucasus' 
is the general name to tlie Greeks and Romans for the hills 
north of India. 

§ 5. ab Oriente, ' in the east.' 

eximlus goes closely with ' omnium ' and has a 8uperlati\e 
force, ' the most remarkable of all the rivers in the east.' 

recto alveo, ' with a straight channel,' i.e. ' in a straight 
course. ' 

§ 6. alter qui . . accipitur, ' the other river ' i.e. the Indus. 
Another reading is: ' Uterque . . . accipitur' i.e. 'each 
river,' the Indus and the Ganges. ' Rubrum mare' is the 
Indian ocean in general. 

quis is the short form — generally preferred by Cnrtius — 
for ' quibus.' 

§8. Acesines, probably the 'Chenab.' The text of this 
passage is very doubtful and has given rise to the suggestion 
of several readings. (a) The reading in our text means : 
' The Acesines increases it (the Indus) : the Indus intercepts 
it (the Acesines) when about to run down into the sea,' etc. 
(6) ' Acesines eum auget, Ganges decursurum in mare lomanen 
intercipit,' etc. (Mr. Heitland following Hedicke). ' The 
Acesines swells the Indus. The Ganges intercepts the 
lomanes when about to run down into the sea,' etc. This 
reading also requires us to continue in the next sentence, 
'quippe Ganges asperum os' etc. The lomanes would be 
the Jumna. 

asperum os, etc. 'It' — i.e. the Indus according to 
(a), the Ganges according to (h), ' exposes a rough front to 
the inflowing stream and the waters, though beaten back, do 
not (altogether) give place.' 

§ 9. Diardines or Dyardenes is possibly the Brahmaputra. 

ultima, the further, most distant, parts. See note on 
' quae ' in § 3. 

§ 10. Etymandrus or Ethimantus is as yet unidentified, ' ab 

NOTES. 29 

accolis rigantibus,' etc., 'is diverted by the natives for 
purposes of irrigation.' 

iam, 'by this time' i.e. by the time it has got near to 
the sea. 

Sll. quia . . . interfluunt, 'because they flow through dis- 
tricts uot sufficiently well known.' Most editors read simply 
'quia non adeo interfluunt' which, according to Zumpt, means: 
' because they do not flow long enough between ' i.e. between 
their sources and the points where they join other and larger 

§12. Ceterum . . . deunintur . . . mitla. (a) If this be the 
right reading we may translate : ' Now the districts which 
are nearer to the sea are to a very great extent withered by 
the north wind: it (i.e. the north wind) being checked by 
the peaks of the hills does not penetrate to the interior parts, 
thus (thej' are) mild enough for the raising of crops.' 

(6) Zumpt reads : ' Ceterum quae propiora sunt mari 
aqullonl maxime decxirrunt, is . . . mitis.' This apparently 
means : ' Now the parts which are nearer to the sea slope 
very considerably towards the north wind,' i.e. are exposed 
to the north wind, and it is this wind which, after being 
checked by the hills, reaches the inland districts in a very 
inild foi ni and so is ' mitis alendis frugibus.' Zumpt adopted 
the view that ' aquilo ' here meant the S. W. monsoon. 
" Aquilonem . . . existimo appellatum esse etesias Indicos 
(Slid- West Monsoon) eam ob causam quod eTijaiai Graeci a 
septentrionibus flant." 

To reconcile either of these accounts with any known 
phenomenon of the Indian climate seems quite impossible. 

§ 13. Nee cur ibi... causa, 'neither is there evident any 
reason why nature has turned herself about in these places.' 
Other readings are : (a) ' nee, cur inverterit se nati'.:a. causa ' 
(Mr. Heitland after Hedicke). We have to supply some 
verb like ' apparet ' to go with ' causa,' ' Nor does there 
appear to be any explanation why nature has turned herself 
about.' (6) 'Nee aperuit se naturae causa ' (Zumpt). 'Neither 
has any explanation of the nature (of this phenomenon) re- 
vealed itself ' (?) 

§ 15. libri . . . capiunt, ' the soft barks of trees receive written 
characters in the same way as sheets of papyrus do'; 'litter- 
arum notas,' lit. ' the marks of letters.' 


§ 17. quam .. domitant, i.e., 'quam est viseorum quoa . , . 

;:; I'J. neque alia, etc. 'And indeed they have no other 
source of wcaltli more important than tliis, especially ever 
since they have extended to foreign nations a share in their 
vicious luxuries : indeed, the scourings of the foaming sea are 
reckoned at whatever value depraved fancy has determined 
(them to lie worth). ' Vitia ' here means especially such vices 
as are associated with luxury and self-indulgence. 

§21. quibus ... eminent, i.e., ' ii quibus,' etc. The nomi- 
native to the verb colunt is the whole of this clause ' quibus 
...eminent.' 'Those whose rank or wealth is conspicuous 
among the populace deck the lower and the upper parts of 
their arms with gold.' 

§22. reliquam ... exaequant, 'the rest of the skin on the 
face they smooth into an appearance of being polished.' 

§24. quae indutus est, 'which he has put on.' For this 
use of an accusative case after a passive, or more strictly a 
'middle' verb, cp. Veig. Aen. ii. .392, ' galeam . . . induitur.' 
It may be an imitation of a similar construction in Greek. 

§ 28. vivario is dative after ' inclusa.' 

§ 29. Ac ne quid, etc. ' And lest anything should be lack- 
ing to his depraved haVMts,' i.e., 'to complete the depravitj' of 
his habits.' 

§ 31. Unum agreste, etc. ' Agreste ' probably means 
'living in the fields,' and is used here to distinguish this 
rustic class of ' sapientes ' from the other kind mentioned in 
§ 33, ' qui in urbibus publicis moribus degunt.' 

sapientes, 'philosophers.' Curtius seems to have heard 
or read something of the Brahmans and Buddhists, but hardly 
to have any very clear idea of the various sects of ' sapientes ' 
that were to be met with in India in his day. 

pulclirum, supply 'est' or ' ducitur.' 

et vivos ... est. ' And those whose time of life is past 
activitj', or health impaired, give instructions that they are 
to be burned alive.' The nominative to ' iubent' is the phrase 
'quibus . . . est.' Curtius seems fond of using this kind of 
construction. Cp. § 21, where 'quibus . . . eminent' is the 
nominative of 'colunt.* 

NOTES. 31 

§32. expectatam mortem, lit. 'a waited-for death,' i.e., 
' to wait for death.' 

§33. publicis moribus, 'with social habits,' 'on civilized 

Nee quemquam ... liceat. ' Nor do they believe that any 
man — who is capable of facing it calmly — hastens the day of 
death.' The subjunctive ' liceat' is used to express the idea 
of a condition or cause. ' No one so long as he is capable.' 

§ 34. capital is an old legal form of ' capitale.' 

§ 35. Menses, etc. This is a very difficult passage to under- 
stand. Curtius says : ' The months they have marked off' 
into sets of fifteen days, (but) the full courses of the j^ear are 
kept.' So far he seems quite intelligible, and, more or less, 
correct, for Mr. M'Crindle says : " Tlie Indian name for the 
iialf of a lunar month is ' paksha.' Tlie half from new moon 
to full moon was called at first ' pftrva ' (fore) and afterwards 
' sukia ' (bright), the other half was called ' apara ' (posterior) 
and aftei'wards 'krishna' (dark)." 

§ 36. Curtius then goes on : ' They mark their divisions of 
time by the course of the moon, not, as most people do, (from 
the time) when she has filled her orb with light, but when 
she has begun to curve herself into horns, and for this reason 
the}' have shorter months (than other people) because they 
regulate the length of them according to this phase of the 
moon.' What he seems to mean is that the Indians counted 
their months from new moon to full moon, and full moon to 
the next new moon. If he had heard of the ' paksha ' this 
would quite probably be his way of regarding it, i.e., as 
though each ' paksha ' were a month. 

quia. Another reading is 'qui,' which would be nomi- 
native to 'dirigunt,' 'who regulate,' i.e., 'since they regii- 

§ 37. haud ... operae, ' not at all worth while.' ' Operae ' 
is probably a predicative dative like ' curae ' or ' odio ' in 
such phrases as ' cui salus mea curae fuit,' 'to whom my 
safety was (a matter) for anxiety,' or ' odi odioque sum 
Romanis,' ' I hate and am (a subject) for hatred to the 



§ 1. facturi, ' ready to do.' This use of tlie fiitiiro parti- 
ciple to express willingness or purpose is common in Curtius. 

ad ipsos, i.e.. ' ad se,' cp. § 9, ' Macedones ad urbem ipsos 
venisse cognoscunt.' 

Liberum, ' Liber ' is another name for the god whom the 
Romans generally called ' Bacchus,' and the Greeks ' Diony- 

Herculem, cp. xi. § 2, and xiv. § 11, for further mention 
of Henniles in India. The Greeks often identified the deities 
of other races with their own gods and goddesses. See note 
on ' Nysam ' in § 7. 

§ 2. exceptos ... iussit,' i.e. ' excepit ct iussit.' 

usurus, ' intending to use.' Cp. 'facturi ' in § 1. 

Hephaestionem Hephaestion was the most intimate of 
all Alexanders friends. He was wounded at Gaugamela, and 
after the death of Philotas was promoted along with tiic ill- 
fated Clitus to the command of the famous ' ('ompanion * 
cavalry. After accompanying Alexander throughout the 
Asiatic campaign, in the course of which he held more than 
one important military office, he died of fever at Kcbatana in 

Perdiccan. Perdiccas was one of Alexander's 
trusted officers. He fought with distinction in most of the 
great battles of the campaign in Asia, and it is said that 
Alexander meant to nominate him as his successor. He was 
chosen after Alexander's death to act as Kegent, but soon 
became involved in hostilities with the other generals, and 
met his death at the hands of his own troops in Egypt. 

ad subigendos, qui, etc. — i.e. 'ad subigendos toK, qui,' 

quis = quibus, as in ix. § 7. 
§3. solutae . . . vehi possent, i.e., ' ut solvi ct . . . vein 

§4. Cratero. Craterus, like Hephaestion, was an intimate 
personal friend f)f .-Me.xander's, besides Vjeing one of his most 
capable generals. He was entrusted with an independent 

NOTES. 33 

conimand against Spitamenes in Baktria during the advance 
across Asia, and commanded one of the three divisions in 
wliich the army returned from India. After Alexai)der's 
ileath he became joint-regent of Greece and the northern 
districts of the Macedonian kingdom and perished in the 
wars of succession between the great officers of the late king. 

qui occurrerent, other readings are 'occurreriint ' and 
' occurrcrant.' 

levi proelio, lit. 'a light battle,' i.e., a battle in which 
light-armed troops would generally be employed, so here ' a 

§6. dum obequitat, etc., 'while he was riding against,' 
i.e., ' up to,' the walls. 

saevitum est, ' fury was vented against the very build- 
ings.' The Latins often used even intransitive verbs in the 
3rd person singular of the passive voice, when they wished to 
express the fact that something was done without wisliing to 
specify who did it ; e.g. § 19 of this chapter : ' Hinc ad 
regioneni . . . perventum est.' 

§ 7. Nysam. For a most interesting account of this episode 
and of the locality in which it took place see page 427 of 
' Alexander the Great.' " The wild ecstasies of the Civa cult, 
which personified the power of growth and reproduction in 
nature, reminded, too, of the Dionysiac worship. Nothing 
further was needed, therefore, to encourage men of naive 
philology in reading the value Nysaeans into the name Nis- 
hadas, which the people of the country bore, and in identify- 
ing their city as a sacred Nysa of their own Hellenic god. 
The name of the sacred mountain Meru, adjoining the city, 
they also rejoiced to recognize as Greek, and explain as the 
mountain of the thigh (Greek meros), an allusion to the tem- 
porary lodgment of the prematurely born Dionysus in the thigh 
of Zeus." And, speaking a little later on of the identification 
by the Greeks of the Indian deities with their own, the author 
says: "Krishna was their own bluff, robust Hercules. 
Krishna had wrought heroic deeds, slain the wild bull, driven 
out monsters. He was alwajs represented as armed with a 
massive club." 

§8. caesis . . . conprehendit. Here again unfortunately the 
reading is doubtful, (a) Our text means : ' They kindled a 



fire, which, as the flame was fed, took hold of the V>urying- 

S laces of the townsfolk.' (h) ' quae, igni alita,' etc. (Zumpt, 
[eitland and others), ' they kindled a flame, which, being 
fed by the fire, took hold,' etc. " We must suppose," aays 
Mr. Heitland, speaking of this reading, which he keeps but 
rather doubts, " tliat the notion in Curtius' mind was simply 
' the more fire the more flame.'" (c) ' quae, lignis alita,' etc. 
'They kindled a fire, which, being fed with logs,' etc. 
§ 9. ipsos = ' se ipsos ' cp. ' ad ipsos ' for ' ad se ' in § 1. 
§ 10. atostinerl, is an impersonal passive like ' saevitnm 
est ' in § 6, lit. ' he ordered there to be an abstaining from 

§ 12. Meron. See note on ' Nysam ' in § 7. 

Inde Graeci, etc. ' From this fact the Greeks derived their 
authority for saying, falsely, that Father Bacchus was con- 
cealed in the thigh of Zeus.' 

§ 14. Lauri baccarisque,' etc. (a) our reading apparently 
means: "There is much wild growth (silva), among these 
rocks, of laurel, spikenard and elecampane.' (b) ' Lauri 
baccarisque multa in illis rupibus agrestis est silva.' ' There 
is among those rocks much wild growth of laurel and 

§17. operatum ... exercitum,' etc., lit. 'kept his army 
busied for Liber,' i.e., ' kept it engaged in acts of worship in 
honour of Liber.' Cp. Verg. Georg. i. 339. "Sacra refer 
Cereri, laetis operatus in herbis." 

§ 18. Eadem felicltas,' etc. In the 9th book (c. 10) Curtius 
gives a vivid description of a Bacchanalian procession that 
Alexander organized, on his homeward march, to celebrate 
the fact that his army had passed the terrible desert of 
Gedrosia, on the seacoast of Baluchistan. ' Hoc modo,' he 
says, ' per dies septem bacchabundum agmen incessit ; parata 
praeda, si quid victis saltem adversus coniissantes animi 

inter era, lit. 'among the faces,' i.e., 'in the very midst 
of the enemj'.' 

§ 19. ' Daedala,' like ' Acadira' below, is as yet unidentified. 

perventura est, see note on ' saevitum est ' in § 6. 
§20. oppressique, etc. ' And (the inhabitants), surprised (in 

NOTES. 35 

places) where they had not been expecting an enemy, were 
thoroughly cowed by disaster of every kind.' 

§21. Ptolemaeus, etc. Ptolemy is on the whole the most 
famous of Alexander's generals. He served with distinction 
all through the Asiatic campaign, and on one occasion his 
timely discovery of a plot saved Alexander's life. He wrote 
an account of his sovereign's career, and it is to this account 
that Arrian is indebted for a good deal of his information. 
After Alexander's death Ptolemy became king of Egypt, 
where he founded the famous Ptolemaic dynasty which 
ended with Cleopatra. 

§ 22. Choaspe, this river — not of course to be confused with 
the Choaspes near Susa — was evidently an affluent of the 
Kophen (Cabul river). " It is most probably the Kamah or 
Kunar river" (M'Crindle). 

Coenon, Coenos was the brother-in-law of Philotas, who 
was put to death on the charge of having plotted against 
Alexander's life. Coenus took a leading part in the trial. It 
was Coenus to whom Alexander entrusted the leading of the 
extreme right at the battle with Porus on the Hydaspes. 
Cp. XIV. § 15. 

Beira. General Cunningham identified this place with 
Baz9,r, but Mr. M'Crindle says that Bazar lies too far east to 
suit the requirements of our passage. Many editors read 

Mazagas, the nominative to this would be 'Mazagae,' 
which sounds like the name of a tribe. Some authorities 
identify the Mazagae with the Afghans. 

§ 24. fossa ingentis operis, ' a trench (a work) of vast 
labour.' ' Operis ' is a genitive of quality or description. 

§25. stadium here is for 'stadiorum.' A 'stadium' was 
equivalent to about one ninth of an English mile. 

ima and superiora, i.e. 'the lower' and 'upper parts' 
respectively, are instances of the vague neuter plurals that 
Curtius is so fond of using, like ' interiora ' and ' ultima ' in 
C. IX. § 12 and § 9. 

crude latere, 'unbaked, sundried brick.' 

Later! vinculum, etc., lit. 'stones area binding for the 
brick,' it. 'stones keep the brick together.' 


terra ... diluta, 'clay.' 

§ 20. Ne tamen . moles, etc. ' Lest how ever the whole 
mass should sink ilowii.' If 'moles' be not leail, 'universa' 
goes with ' materia,' which is to he uiider»loo<l from the 
previous sentence. 

inpositae, etc. It certainly is not easy to understand 
how the laying of beams on the top of the structure should 
prevent it from sinking down. Possibly, however, 'im- 
positae' — or might it not be ' interpositae ' ? — means here 
'placed vertically' along the front of the wall. In this case 
the beams would rest on the stone structure at the bottom of 
the wall, while the flooring (tabulata) would be supported at 
intervals by the tops of the beams. This would at any rate 
help to keep the whole structure from falling outwards. 

§ 27. consiliique incertum, ' uncertain about his plan.' Cp. 
XI. § 3 'inopem consilii.' 

alitef, 'otherwise,' i.e. unless the 'cavernae' should first 
have been filled up by means of an 'agger.' 

percussit eum. * Alexandrnin ' is the natural accusative 
to ' percussit ' and ' eum ' is quite redundant. Many editors 
put a full stop at 'percussit,' and begin the next sentence ; 
'Tum forte,' etc., 'At that time, as it happened, the bolt 
struck him in the calf of his leg.' On other occasions he was 
wounded in other places. " Videtur turn,'' says Zumpt, 
" defendi posse, quandoquidem saepe Alexander telo percussus 

§ 28. destinata, lit. ' the things determined upon,' i.e. ' his 
purpose. ' 

§ 29. lovis filium. During his expedition to Egypt 
Alexander paid a visit to the temple of Amnion, in the oasis 
of Siwah, and asked several questions of the god. The 
priest — so Plutarch quotes the storj' — addressed him in 
Greek, and, meaning to say ' paidios ' (my son), said instead 
'pal Dios' (0 son of Zeus) ; whence arose the legend that the 
god had called him son of Zeus. (See Alexander the Great 
pp. 348, 349.) 

vitia, ' the M-eaknesses.' 

§ 30. demoliebantur, etc. ' Some were pulling down the 
buildings outside the city and carrying away from them a 

NOTES. 37 

vast amount of material for making the mole.' Some editors 
read ' moliebantur ' with the same meaning. 

faciendo aggeri is a dative of purpose, not unlike 
'serendis rumoribus ' after 'natum' in ix. §1. cp. Livy, 
III. 5, ' his avertendis terroribus in triduum feriae indictae ' 
(quoted by Madvig § 415). 

§.31. nondum ... cicatrice, 'though his wound had not yet 

§ 32. rudes ... operum, 'unaccustomed to such works.' 

§33. patebat, 'was open.' Another reading is ' placebat,' 
• seemed good. ' 

§ 36. Puero certe, etc. ' Anyhow the name of the boy who 
was subsequently born bj'^ her — whoever his father may have 
been — was Alexander.' ' Alexandre ' is "attracted " into the 
case of 'puero.' Cp. Sallust Jugurtha V. 'Scipio, cui postea 
Africano cognomen f uit. ' 


§ 1. Polypercon. * Polypercon ' (or Polyspercon) was 
appointed after the battle of Issus to command part of the 
phalanx. Later on he incurred Alexander's resentment by 
making fun of the Oriental ceremonies that the king had 
introduced. He was present at the battle with Porus and 
accompanied Craterus on the return march from India. He 
ultimately succeeded Antipater as regent. 

Noram. Arrian describes an attack upon a place called 
'Ora,' which may possibly be the same as ' Nora.' 
inconditos, 'undisciplined.' 

§2. Aomin. "Its Sanskrit name may well have been 
Avarana, "the Refuge"; but the Greeks did the best they 
could, and called it 'Aornos' (Aornis) "the Birdless," for- 
sooth because it was so high. Among the various attempts 
at modern identification, that of General Abbott in his 
' Gradus ad Aornon,' which makes it to be Mount Mahaban 
(4125 feet above the plain) about 30 miles above the mouth of 
the Kabul, is the most plausible" {Alexander the Great, 


Hanc ... coactum, etc. 'Hanc' obviously refers to 
'petrani,' but with 'coactum' we must supply 'euui,' i.e. 
' Herculem.' The change is extremely harsh. 

§ 3. Inopem consilii, ' at a loss for a Iplan ' : like ' coiisilii 
iucertuui' in x. § 27. 

§4. constitnit daturum, i.e. ' constituit se daturum esse,' 
' agreed that he would give.' 

ad exequenda, quae, etc., i.e. 'ad exequenda ea quae,' 
etc. Cp. X. § 2 'ad subigendos qui aversarentur.' 

§ 5. Mylleas. Zumpt calls him ' Mullinus.' As to what 
happened to Mylleas and his guides Curtius says nothing 
more, except that Alexander paid what he liad promised 
though the guides performed less than they had under- 
taken. Arrian's account of this episode is a good deal fuller 
than Curtius'. His story is, roughly, as follows : Finding 
that the capture of the rock by a frontal attack would, at the 
best, be very difficult, Alexander accepted the ofler of some 
natives, who undertook to guide him to a spot from which it 
would be possible to make a successful assault upon the 
summit of the hill. With these guides he sent Ptolemy — not 
Mylleas — at the head of a force of light-armed troops, among 
whom were the Agrianians. Led by the natives Ptolemy 
made his way during the night to an eminence on the hill, 
not very far from the actual summit, which was held by the 
enemy. Here by daybreak he had entrenched himself, and 
all through the following day he held his position against the 
enemy, who failed to oust him, though they managed to keep 
Alexander from coming up to join him. The next day the 
main body of the Macedonians renewed their attempt, and 
Ptolemy supported them by himself attacking the Indians 
in the rear. In this way Alexander's forces effected a 
junction with Ptolemy's, and it was from the eminence which 
Ptolemy had held that the mole was run out and the final 
attack on the summit of the hill successfully made. 

quo fallerent, ' by means of which they might deceive.' 
Other readings are 'quo falleret' (Madvig), 'by means of 
which he (Alexander), might deceive,' etc., and 'qui falle- 
rent ' (Zumpt), ' (those) who were to deceive,' etc. 

placebat, i.e. ' Alexandro.' 
§6. in metae . . . modum, 'in the shape of a 'meta.* The 

NOTES. 39 

' metae ' were conical columns set up at either end of the 
Konian circus, and meant to act as turning-posts or goals in 

Ima, altiora, and summa are more of Curtius' favourite 
vague neuter plurals. See on xi. § 3. 

§ 8. nudi stipites, etc. Possibly it was the recollection of 
what had happened at ' Mazagae,' where the trees were 
dragged along 'cum raniis,' that suggested cutting away the 
boughs on this occasion (cp. x. § 30). 

§ 9. Agrianos. The ' Agriani ' were a Thracian tribe living 
to the north of Paeonia. Probably they were enlisted during 
Alexander's campaign in Thrace and Illyria. See Intro- 

ex sua cohorte, ' from his personal staff' (M'Criudle). 

§ 10. non placuit, ' it did not seem good to the army as a 
whole.' We must not supply 'Alexandro' here, as we did 
with ' placebat ' in § 5. 

§ 11. audaciae promptae, a descriptive genitive. 

§ 13. perventum erat, like ' perventum est ' in x. § 19. 

§ 15. acrius quam cautius, ' with more daring than 

§ 17. haud secus ... erat, is an adverbial phrase going with 
' raotus.' ' Being moved not otherwise than as was fair,' i.e. 
'being rightly or duly affected.' 

§ 18. salutl is a ' predicative dative.' 

depnlisse contenti, ' satisfied to have beaten back,' etc. 
Mr. Heitland most aptly compares Book iv. c. x. § 14. 
' Mazaeus, qui antea per otium vicos incenderat iam fugere 
contentus, pleraque inviolata hosti reliquit ' ; where ' fugere 
contentus ' means ' only too glad to escape by flight.' 

§ 19. speciem ... perseverantis, ' kept up the appearance of 
(one) persevering.' 

§ 24. magnae ... fecit, (a) Our text means: 'displayed 
the outward appearance of a great victory.' {h) Zumpt reads 
' magnam victoriam sacrificiis et cultu deum fecit,' i.e. 'made 
the victory a great one by means of sacrifices and religious 
services. ' 

deum is for 'deorura.' 

40 QUJxrus cunrius uufus. 

§ 2o. quo, J.e. 'quo itinere.* 
cum flde, 'scrupulously.' 
Sisocosto, Arrian calls him 'Sisicottus.' 


§1. EcboUma. Arrian calls it 'Embolima.' "General 
Cunningham places it about Ohind on the upper Indus" 

Erice. This form is an ablative from Erices. Diodorus 
calls this man ' Aphrikes.' 

modicis itineribus, ' by easy stages.' 

§ 2. Ipse praegressus, etc. ' He hintself, going on ahead, 
routed those who had beset the pass by means of his slingers 
and archers, and made a way for the forces who were 
following him.' Another reading is : ' funditore ac sagittario,' 
' by means of the slinger and the archer. ' 

§ 3. inituri, etc., ' hoping to enter into favour,' see note on 
c. X. § 1 ' facturi.' 

§ 4. sextisdeciunis castris, lit. ' at the sixteenth encamp- 
ment,' i.e. 'after 16 days' — or possibly, as the Romans 
reckoned inclusively — ' 15 days of marcliiug.' 
ut praeceperat. See c. x. § 2. 

Omphis, '• Sanskrit Ambhi " (M'Crindle). His capital 
was Taxila and his dominions lay between the Indus and the 
Jhilam (Hydaspes). 

qui patri, etc., lit. 'who to his father too had been the 
adviser of giving up the kingdom to Alexander,' i.e. ' who had 
also advised his father to surrender his kingdom to Alexander.' 

§5. qui consulerent, etc., 'who were to ask him whether 
he (Alexander) wished him (Omphis) to go on ruling for the 
present, or to await his arrival in a merely private capacity.' 
'qui consulerent eum,' etc. , i.e. qui consulerent eum uirum 
regnare se interim vellet, etc. 

§ 6. pennissoque, ut regnaret, ' when permission to reign 
had been given to him.' ' Permisso ' is a past participle in 
the ablative case and the neuter gender agreeing with the 

NOTES. 41 

noun-clause * ut legnaret,' the whole forming a phrase in the 
ablative absolute. Zumpt reads ' perniissus ' in the sense 
of ' being allowed,' but the latinity of such a use is distinctly 

non ... sustinuit, ' he did not venture.' 

ne ... ullius. We should rather have expected ' cuius ' or 
'cuiusquam' which are the pronominal forms, but 'ullus' is 
sometimes used for the pronoun as well as for the adjective. 

§7. venienti, etc., 'he went to meet him coming,' i.e. 
'as he came.' 

§ 8. occurreret. The subjunctive is used here because the 
clause expresses the idea in Alexander's mind. 

§9. eo, i.e. ' interprete. ' 

§ 10. corpus ... permittere, i.e. 'dixit se corpus . . . per- 
mittere. ' 

gloriae militantem ... timere, i.e. 'gloriae militare et 
idcirco . . . timere.' 

§11. acceptum, ' acceptable ' (Heitland). 

§ 12. quaerenti Alexandro, etc. ' To Alexander's question 
whether he had more tillers of the soil or soldiers, he replied 
that since he was at war with two kings he had need of 
a greater number of soldiers than of husbandmen.' ' quaerenti 
. . . haberet, i.e. quaerenti utrum . . . haberet' as in § 5 
' consulerent . . . vellet. ' 

§13. Abisarea. In chapter xiii. {§ 1) we hear that Abisares 
sent an offer of submission to Alexander as soon as he was 
aware of his having crossed the Indus, but in c. xiv. (§ 1) we 
find Porus expecting his promised help against the Mace- 
donians. Both accounts are probably true. After the defeat 
of Porus Alexander received another offer of submission from 
Abisares and seems to have allowed him to retain his throne. 
His kingdom in all probability was some part of Kashmir. 

Porus, "King of the Paurauvas" (Alexander the Great, 
p. 434). 

Hydaspen. The Hydaspeswas the 'Jhilam' or ' Jhelam.' 

§ 14. Taxilen, etc. 'The people called him Taxiles, since 
the name followed the office into whosoever's hands it 
passed. ' 


§15. Blgnatl argenti, 'marked or stamped,' i.e. 'coined 
silver.' For a discussion of ancient Indian coinage see The 
invasion of India by Alexander the Great, p. 371. 

dono, is a predicative dative ; just as we say , ' for a 

§ 16. quis, is for 'quibus,' dative after 'adsueverant.' 

§ 17. Meleager, served with some distinction all through 
the eastern canipaii,'n, and was put to death by Perdiccas in 
the civil wars wiiicb followed the death of Alexander, 
super cenam, just as we say ' over supper.' 

§ 18. Clitum. This refers to one of the best-known stories 
about Alexander. Clitus was a brother of Lanike, who had 
been Alexander's nurse. At the battle of Granicus he saved 
Alexander's life, and later on he was promoted, along with 
Hephaestion, to the command of the famous cavalrj' regiment 
known as " the companions." Personally he was devoted to 
the King^, but in his political views he was a thorough 
* Macedonian,' and heartily disliked the Persian customs 
which he thought Alexander was coming more and more to 
adopt. To this feeling he gave violent expression in a rash 
speech made at a festival of Dionysus at Samarcand in 
328 B.C. Stung by his taunts Alexander seized a spear and 
hurled it straight at him. Clitus fell dead, and Alexander, 
realising what he had done, was overcome with passionate 
remorse whicli seems to have embittered the rest of his life. 


§ 1. Abisarae, gen. of 'Abisares' or ' Abisara,' see note on 
XII. § 13. 

ut mandatum erat, i.e. by Abisares. 

§ 3. Barzaentes, cp. book vi. c. vi. § 36. Barzaentes had 
been Satrap, under Darius, of the province known as Drangae, 
the district round the Hamun swamps, and had taken part 
with Bessus, Satrap of Baktria, in the deposition and murder 
of the Emperor after the battle of Oaugamela. Here we are 
told that he had been also the instigator of a rebellion in 
Arachosia. We may suppose that he took part, along with 

NOTES. 43 

Satibarzanes, whom Alexander had allowed to continue in his 
post as Satrap of ' Aria,' in the attempt, which certainly was 
made, to reestablish the Persian supremacy and to put Bessus 
on the throne under the title of Artaxerxes. In this attempt, 
we may believe, the task of stirring up Arachosia was given 
to Barzaentes, whose own satrapy had Iain immediately west 
of this district. After the failure of this enterprise Barzaentes 
fled to India, where he was subsequently given up to 

Arachosiis, is probably a dative lit. ' an instigator of 
rebellion to the Arachosians.' ' Arachosia ' corresponded to 
Central and East Afghanistan. 

§ 4. Samaxus or Gamaxus, is apparently quite unknown. 

§ 5. transfuga, etc., supply 'traditis' before 'in custodiam.' 
'The rebel (Barzaentes) and the prince (Samaxus) having 
been handed over into safe-keeping and the elephants handed 
over to Taxiles, etc' 

prohibiturus, ' determined to prevent.' 

§ 6. sicuti ante dictum est, cp. c. ix. § 28. 
gravioribus . . . quam . . . possent, lit. ' with shafts heavier 
than (such) that they could be conveniently discharged,' i.e. 
' with shafts too heavy to be readily discharged.' 

§ 8. Macedonas, the Greek form of the accusative plural. 

diffusus, we might have expected ' diffusum ' to agree 
with ' flumen, ' but, as Zumpt remarks, the word in Curtius' 
mind is rather ' Hydaspes ' than ' flumen. ' 

§9. Nee pro spatio, etc., 'and yet it did not check its 
speed in proportion to the width of space over which its 
waters were spreading far and wide, hut it rushed along 
seething and pouring, just as though its banks had been 
coming together into a narrow channel.' 

elisus= 'throttled, squeezed' (Heitland). 

stagnantium, is here used in a curious sense. Generally it 
implies the absence of violent movement in water. 

§ 10. stabant, etc. It is difficult not to believe that these 
words are a hexameter verse quoted from some early poet, 
like Ennius : 

'stabant ingentes vastorum corporum moles.' 


It would be at least as easy to scan ' corporuni moles,' as a 
dactyl followed by a spondee, as it is to scan such lines as : 

' ille vir baud magna cum re sed plenus fidei.' (Ennius). 

§ 11. hlnc ■■■ hinc, etc., 'here the ri\er, there the enemy, 
etc. Both of course were in front of the Macedonians. 

instabiles rates, 'unstable, unsafe vessels.' Another 
reading (Mutzell's) is ' inhabiles,' 'unhandy,' 'awkward.' 

§ 12. levia proelia, 'skirmishes,' cp. x. §4, ' levi proelio.' 
summae, i.e. 'sunimae rei.' 

§ 13. partium, 'of their side.' 

§ 14. quis ducibus, abl. abs. 'and with them as leaders.' 

§ 15. Abire . . . poterant . . . modum, ' they miglit have come ofl 
with credit, did but rashness when successful ever find a limit.' 
dum supervenientea ... expectant, 'while they were 
waiting for the reinforcements with contemptuous self-con- 
tidence,' ' supervenientes ' 'those coming in support' i.e. of 
the Indians, who had so far been worsted. 

§ 17. inops consilil, cp. xi. § 3, ' inopem consilii Alexan- 
drum. ' 

talem ... intendit, ' devised a stratagem like this,' ' talem ' 
refers to what is coming. 

§ 18. opportunitatis, abstract for concrete, ' suitable place.' 

§ 20. in diversa ... ripae, 'on a part of the bank facing the 
other way,' i.e. not towards the island. 

§ 21. Attalum, was accused of complicity in the plot of 
Philotas, but was acquitted. He sided with Perdiccas after 
Alexander's death. 

§ 23. in regionem insulae, ' into the neighbourhood of the 
island,' i.e. to the shore opposite the island on the other 
side. According to Arrian, however, wliat had seemed to the 
Macedonians to be the other bank of the river turned out 
when they reached it to be another island, and they had to 
cross the channel joining this second island to the real bank 
before being able to advance against Porus. 

§25. forsitan hoste ... tenente, 'while, for all they knew, 
the enemy was holding the very bank which they were making 
for blindly and rashly.' Zumpt reads: 'forsitan hoste earn 

NOTES. 45 

ipsam ripam quam caeci atque improvidi et ex periculo 
gloriam aocersentes petebant, occupantc,' 'while the enemy 
were perliaps seizing that very bank which tliey, blind and 
rash and seeking glory from the very peril, were making for.' 
periculo ... accersens, lit. 'summoning' glory from the 
danger, ' so ' striving to win gloi-y from his peril.' 

§ 26. expelli probabl3' means here, as Mr. Heitland observes, 
'to be run aground.' 

§ 27. ire in ordines, ' to go to their ranks,' ' to fall in.' 


For a description of the battle on the Hydaspes see 
Alexander the Great, pp. 440-444. 

§1. ipse, Alexander. 

Abisaren ... convenerat,' cp. cxii., §1.3. ' convenerat ' is 
impersonal, ' it had been agreed upon.' 

§2. Hages, other authorities say that the leader of this force 
was a ■■<on of Porus. 

summa.curribus, summa is ablative ; ' the chief strength 
(being) in the chariots.' Some editors put a full stop at 
' ipsius,' and begin a new sentence at ' Summa.' In this case 
' summa ' is nomina,tive to 'fuit,' understood. 

§ 5. Scythae et Daliae. These troops were enlisted pro- 
bably during Alexander's visit to 'Hyrcania ' in the autumn of 
330 B.C. The Dahae or Daae, lived on the south-east shore 
of the Caspian Sea, just north of ' Hyrcania.' 

Perdiccam . . . misit. In §15 we find Perdiccas accom- 
panying Alexander in his charge against the enemy's left. 
Possibly Curtius means his description from § 2 — § 9 to be an 
account only of the first skirmish between Hages' force and 
Alexander's light-armed troops, while the real battle begins 
in g 9 with the words, ' Is, ut dissipates,' etc. 

§ G. lam . . . moverat, lit. ' the battle had roused itself on 
all sides.' 

§ 7. pedites, light-armed infantry, not the phalanx. 

§ 10. nee ... movebantur, i.e. 'elephanti.' 
mitigatis, 'tempered,' so 'accustomed.' 


§ 11. Herculis. Cp. on x. § 1, ' Ilerculem,' and § 7 

§ 12. capitis ... poenam, ' and they had ordained the death 
penalty for those,' etc. 

ex illo hoste, ' of him (Hercules) when he was their 
enemy.' Cp. xi. § 2. 

§ 13. formam, ' outline,' so 'conception ' (Heitland). 

magnitudinem . . . belua, 'the beast on which he rode 
seemed to add great size to his body.' Zumpt reads : ' mag- 
nitudini Pori adiicere,' etc., i.e. ' the beast seemed to add to 
the stature of Porus.' This version requires some word like 
' aliquid ' to be supplied with ' adiicere.' 

§ 15. Intuensque, etc. Coenus was in command of the 
Macedonian right. Alexander was first to charge the Indian 
left and draw it out to meet him ; then Coenus was to lead a 
charge from the extreme right of the Macedonian position 
and attack the Indian left from the flank sis it rode forward 
to meet Alexander. At the same time the Macedonian 
centre was to advance against the Indian centre, where the 
elephants were. 

comitatus, though from a deponent verb, is here used — 
as is not infrequently done — in a passive sense. Mr. Heit- 
land compares Curtius, lib. X. c. viii. § 3, ' sedecim omnino 
pueris regiae coliortis comitatus.' 

dextrum move, 'move forward the right.' Zumpt 
places Coenus on the Macedonian left and saj's that ' dextrum 
move' means 'break up the enemy's right.' The most 
obvious objection to this view is that in § 17 Coenus is 
described as charging ' ingenti vi in laemim.' Of this Zumpt 
simply says, " oportet esse in dextrum." 

Antigene. Antigenes was made Satrap of Susiana after 
Alexander's death. In tlie subsequent civil wars he fell into 
the hands of his enemy, Antigonus, Satrap of Phrygia, who 
had him burned to death. 

Leonnate. Leonnatus was an able and trustworthy 
officer, who served all through the Eastern campaign. He 
perished in an attempt to supersede Antipater, the regent of 

NOTES. 47 

Tauron. Nothing appears to be known of ' Tauron ' be 
yond what is mentioned here. 

§ 16. hastae. This, no doubt, refers to the ' sarissa ' with 
w hich Philip of Macedon had armed the phalanx. According 
to Mr. Hogarth, its length would be some 14 feet. 

Usui, is a predicative dative : lit. ' for use,' so ' of use.' 

§ 18. At Poms, etc. These words seem to mark the begin- 
ning of the second stage in the fight. Seeing the cavalry on 
his left wing broken by the double attack from Alexander 
and Coenus, Porus ordered some of his elephants to be 
wiieeled round and driven over to the left in order to check 
the Macedonian cavalry, and give his own men a chance to 
rally again. But the elephants moved too slowly to get to 
their new position in time, and the archers, who had formed 
the second line behind them, were unable to use their long 
bows and fell into confusion. Probably it was just at the 
moment when the elephants in the left centre wheeled roimd 
that the phalanx advanced into the gap that the elephants 
had left. 

§ 19. imponunt, ' put their arrows to the string.' 

turn . . . occupantur, 'on this occasion — since the ground 
was slippery, and, for that reason, hindered their efforts — 
the archers while striving to deliver their blows are fore- 
stalled by the quickness of their enemy.' 

molientes, ' cum opera et labore perficientes ' (Vogel). 

§ 21. Nihil ... consulebatur, ' no plan for united action was 
being suggested.' 

§ 22. Porus tamen, etc. Here begins apparently the third 
phase of the battle. The left wing of the Indian army had 
by this time — in spite of the elephants sent to its support- 
been hopelessly broken, and its remnants were driven in on 
the centre, which was now being attacked in front and on 
the flank at the same time. Porus therefore gives orders 
that his remaining elephants should lead a last attempt to 
break the Macedonian line. At first this movement was 
successful, but, to check it, Alexander sent the light-armed 
Agrianians and Thracians, who poured volleys of arrows 
among the elephants, and advanced and retired in turn so 
quickly that it was impossible for the unwieldy beasts to 
keep pace with them. 


§24. meliorem ... militem, 'a type of soldier more useful 
in rapid advance and retreat tliaii in hand-to-hand fiphtinj?.' 

§ 26. ceteris . documentum, ' warned the others to press 
on more cautiously.' 

§ 28. anceps, etc. ' For a long time the struggle went on, 
until, in fact, the Macedonians brought into play long, curved 
swords, and axes, with whicli they cut at the trunks and feet 
of the elephants and turned of them to flight.' 

§ 29. Nee quicquam, etc. Tliere are two ways of taking 
this passage. (a) The genitives 'mortis' and 'supplicii' 
depend upon 'quicquam.' 'And terror left untried no means 
not merely of (inflicting) death, but also of (inflicting) new 
agony in the very act of killing' ; i.e. terror suggested to the 
Macedonians not merely ways of killing the elephants, but 
also how to kill them "with spiteful barbarity." 

(b) ' mortis' and ' supplicii' depend not on ' quicquam ' but 
on ' timor.' 'And the fear, not merely of being killed, but 
also of (suffering) unheard of agony in death itself, left 
nothing untried'; i.e. The wits of the Macedonians were 
sharpened by the fear not simply of death, but also of 
sufl'ering new torture in dying. 

The ' novum supplicium ' was the being seized or crushed by 
the elephants. 

§ 30. ab ipsis, by the ' veiy elephants ' on which they had 
been riding. 

pecorum modo, lit., 'in the manner of cattle,' so ' like a 
flock of sheep 'or 'a herd of cattle.' 

§ 31. Cum Porus, etc. Abandoned by all but a few Porus 
determines to sell his life dearly. Curtius says nothing about 
the Macedonian forces which had been left on the other side 
of the river. According to other authorities these forces 
crossed during the battle and joined in the pursuit. 

in circumfusos, 'against those crowding round him.' 

§ 33. fluentibus, fainting, failing. 

§ 34. posito .. effuse, 'the king being set down rather than 
thrown off.' 

§41. Quae, malum, etc. An idiomatic expression, 'what 
in the world ? ' ' whatever madness t ' 

NOTES. 49 

§42. respondebo, etc., 'I will reply with that freedom 
wliich you have granted me by asking the question.' ' liber- 
tatein faoere ' is a jihiase like ' potestateni facere.' 
§ 45. conflrmatum, 'wlien he had recovered.' 
§46. Nee sane, etc., 'and indeed his nature contained no 
• dement more permanent and stable than his admiration fur 
real fame and renown.' 

simplicius, ' more impartially,' ' more fairly.' 
a suis, 'by people on his own side.' 
quo, 'in proportion as.' 


a. ab (prep. abl. ), by, from. 
abeo, -ire, -ii (vb. ), go away, 

come off. 
abhorreo, -ere, -ui (vb.) differ 

Abisares, -ae (s.), Abisares. 
abruptus, -a, -\im (pp. of 

abrumpo), broken off, sh<er, 

abscondo, -ere, -ndifli (vb. ), 

absisto, -ere, -stiti (vb.), 

absolvo, -ere, -hi (vb. ), com- 

abstineo, ere, -id {\\>.)ahKtain 

ac (conj ), and. 
Acadira (s. ), Acadira. 
accendo, -ere, -ndi (vb. ), 

li</ht, set on fire. 
accensus, -a, -iim (pp. of 

accendo ),.^rc</. 
acceptus -a, -um (pp. of 

accipio), acceptable, vel- 

accerso, -6re, -ivi (vb.), sum- 
mon, chaJlewje. 

accipio, -ere. -epi(vb.),)«(?e(ir, 

accola, -ae (s.), inhabitant, 

Acesines, -ae (.s.), the Acesines. 
acies, -ei (s. ), line of battle. 
acriter, -rius, -errime (advb.), 

ke>-v/y, ferrely, enthusi- 
acutus, -a, -um (adj.), ■'iharp. 
ad (prep, ace), to, towards. 
adduce, -6re, -xi (vb. ), bring 

adeo (advb.), so, snfficienfly. 
adeo, -ire, -ii (vb. ), go to, 

adficio, -Cre, -eci (vb. ), affect. 
adgestus, -a, -um (pp. of 

adi^ero), pile up. 
adgnosco, -ere, -novi (vb.), 

adgxavo, -are, -avi (vb. ), ng- 

grnratfl, increase, make 

adgredior, -i, -gressus sum 

(vb. ) approach. 
adhibeo, -ere, ui (vb. ), bring 

adbuc (advb.), still. 




adicio, -§re, -ieci (vb.), add. 
adilus, -us (s. ), appronrh, 

1 11/ III nee. 
adiungo, -ere, -iunxi (vb. ), 

/'()//( /o. 

adiuvo, -are, -iiivi (vb.), lielp. 
adlevo, -are, -avi (vb. ), rai-<p, 

lift up. 
adluo, -('-re, -lui (vb. ), irash. 
admetior, -iri, -mensus sum 

(vli.), measure out /or. 
administro, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

adiniratio, -nis (s. ), ailmira- 

admoneo. -ere, -ui (vb. ), i-c- 

jtiind, admonish. 
admoveo, -ere, -movi (vb.), 

hrini] to, forward, haxten. 
adorior, -iri, -ortus sum (vb. ), 

adoro, -are, -avi (vb. ), wor- 


adreto, -6re, -petii (vb. ), 

ni/ack, aim at. 
adplico, -are, -avi (-ui), (vl).), 

liriiKj to land. 
adsuesco, -ere, -suevi (vb.), 

to ijrow accu.'ilomed. 
adsuetus, -a, -urn (pp. of 

ailsuesco), accustomed. 
adsum, -esse, -fui (vb. ), be 

advento, -are, -avi (vb. ), come 

up, appi-oacli. 
adventus, -us (s. ), arrival, 

rominij to. 
adversus (prep.), against. 
aeger, -ra, -rum (adj.), sick, 

<ickly, feeble. 
ae^re (advb. ), hardly (aegre 

ferre, to resent, repent). 

aequalis, -is, -e (adj.), of the 

Mime uije, conii m/iorari/. 
aeque (advb.), equally. 
aequo, -are, -avi (vb.), eipial, 

aestimo, -are, -avi (vb. ), e.v- 

fimate, reckon, value. 
aestus, -us (s.), heat. 
aetas, -atis (s. ), age. 
Africa, -ae (s. ), Africa. 
agger, -ris (s. ), rampart, 

agito, -are, -avi (vb. ), think, 

agmen, -inis (s.),, line, 

procession, diii'sion, column. 
ago, -ere, egi (vb. ), drive, 

agrestis, -is, -e (adj.), liring 

in the country or fields, 

Agriani, -orum (s.), the 

A ijrianians. 
agricultor, -is (s.), tiller of 

the soil, farmer. 
alacritas, -tatis (s.), speed, 

Alexander, -ri (s.), Alexander. 
alias (advb.), elsewhere, at 

other times. 
alienus, -a, -urn (adj.), be- 
longing to others, foreign. 
aliqui, -qua, -quod (adj.), 

aliter (advb.), othencise. 
alius, -a, -ud, (adj. or pron.), 

.so7?ie, other. 
alo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), cherish, 

encourage, support. 
alter, -ra, -rum (adj. or 

pron.), one or other oftico. 
altus, -a, -um (adj. ), high,deep. 



alveus, -i (s. ), channel, bed. 
amentia, -ae (s. ), madness. 
amicus, -a, -um (s. or arlj.), 

fricndlij, friend. 
amnis, -is {&.), river. 
amplius (atlvb. ), furthtr, 

hei/ond, ('he. 
amplus, -a, -um (adj. ), bi-oad, 

amputo, -are, -avi (vb.), cut, 

anceps (adj. ), douhtfxd, dovblf. 
angiistiae, -arum (s. ), narrow 

animal -is (s.), animal. 
animus, -i (s.), mind, courage, 

spirit, intention. 
annus, -i (s. ), a year. 
ante (prep. ace. or advb.), 

Antigenes (s. ), Antigenes. 
Aornis (s. ), Aornis. 
aperio, -ire, -ui (vb. ), open, 

ahov), reveal. 
apparatus, -i"is (s.), shoiv, 

appello, -are, -avi (vb.), call. 
apte (advb.), readily, sxiit- 

aptus, -a, -um (adj.), Jit, 

apud (prep, ace), amongst. 
aqua, -ae (s. ), water. 
Aquilo. -nis (s.), the north 

ara, -ae (s. ), altar. 
Arachosii, -orum (s.) the 

A rarhosians. 
arbor, -is (s. ), tree. 
arcus, -lis (s. ), boir. 
ardor, -is (s.), enthusiasm, 

zeal, stress, brunt. 

arduus, -a, -um (adj.), steep, 

argenteus, -a, -um (adj.), 
made of silver. 

argentum, -i (s.), silver. 

arma, -orum (s. ), arms, 

armatura, -ae (s.), armament, 
armed force. 

armatus, -a, -um (adj.), 

armentum, -i (s.), herd,Jlock. 

artus, -a, -um (adj.), narrovj, 
dose (comp. artior, -ior, 

arx, -cis (s.), citadel. 

ascendo, -ere, -scendi (vb.), 
go up, climb, go on board. 

aspectu8,-us (s. ), looi; appear- 

asper, -ra, -rum (adj. ), rough, 

Assacanus, -i (s.), Assacanus. 

atque (coiij.), and. 

Attains, -i (s. ), Atlalu-i. 

auctor, -is (s.), authonty, 
author, instigator, advocate. 

auctoritas, -tatis (s. ), author- 
ity, power. 

audacia, -ae (s. ), boldness. 

audeo, -ere, ausus sum (vb.), 
dare, venture. 

audio, -ire, -ivi (vb.), hear. 

auditu (advb.), by report (abl. 
of auditus, verbal noun 
from audio). 

aufero, -ferre, abstuli (vb.), 
take auay, carry away. 

augeo, -ere, auxi (vb. ), in- 
crease, swell. 

auratus, -a, -um (adj.), 



aureus, -a, -urn {&&].), (loldtn. 
auriga, -ae (s. ), charioteer. 
auris, -is (s.), ear. 
aurum, -i (s.), gold. 
auster, -ri (s. ), south wind. 
aut (conj.), or, either. 
autem (conj. or advb. ), how- 
ever, on the other hand. 
auxillum, -i (s. ), help. 
aversor, -ari, -atus sum (vb.), 

turn away from, disown, 

aversus, -a, -uni (adj.), turned 

away from. 
averto, -ere, -x'ti (vb. ), turn 

a way from. 
avidius (advb.), comp. of 

avide, more eagerly, too 

avis, -is (s. ), hird. 
avius, -a, -um {a.ii.].), pathless. 


baccar, -is (s.), spikenard. 

bacclior, -ari, -atus sum (vb. ), 
play the bacchanal, revel. 

Balacnis, -i (s. ), Balacrus. 

barbarus, -i (s. ), barbarian. 

Barzaentes, -is (s.), Bar- 

Beira (s.), Beira. 

belle, -are, -avi (vb.), Jight, 
make war. 

belua, -ae (s.), beast, monster. 

bellum, -i(s. ), war, battle. 

beneflcium, -i (s. ), benefit, 

benigne (advb.), kindly. 

benignitas, -tatis (s.), kind- 
ness, generosity. 

bestia, -ae (s. ), beast. 

biduum, -i (s. ), a space of two 

binl, -ae, -a (adj.), two each. 
bracMum, -i (s.), lower part 

of the arm. 
brevls, -is, -e (adj.), short, 



cacumen, -inis (s. ), top, point. 

caducus, a, -um (adj.), un- 
reliable, frail. 

caecus, -a, -um (adj.), blind. 

caedes, -is (s.), slaughter, 

caedo, -6re, cecldi (vb.), cut 

caelo, -are, -avi (vb. ), shape, 
carve, chase. 

caelum, -i (s.), sky, heaven. 

campus, -i (s. ), plain. 

canis, -is (s.), dog. 

cantus, -us (s.), singing, sound. 

capax(adj. ), capableofopento. 

capillus, -i (s.), hair. 

capio, --ere, cepi (vb. ), take, 
capture, /seize. 

capital (adj.), capital, in- 
volving death. 

caput, -itis (s.), head. 

carbasus, -i (n.), linen (plur. 
carbasa, clothes). 

carmen, -inis (s. ), song. 

carpo, -ere, -psi (vb. ), / take 

castellum, -i {s.),fort, castle. 

castra, -orum (s. ), camp, 

casus, -us (s. ), fate, chance. 

Caucasus, -i (s. ), Caucasus. 

causa, -ae (s.), reason, catisi. 

cautius (advb.), more cau- 
tiously (comp. of caute). 



caverna, -ae (s. ), cavtrn, cane, 

cavo, -iire, -avi (vb. ), ho/low. 
cedo, -ere, cessi (vb. ), retire, 

f/ive place, yield. 
cedrus, -ri (a.), cedar. 
celeber, -ris, -re (adj.), cele- 
celeritas, -tatis (s. ), Hinftums. 
celo, -are, -avi (vb. ), conceal. 
ceaa, -ae (s. ), supper. 
censeo, -Cre, -ui ( vb. ), comider. 
cerno, -ere, crevi (vb. ), nee. 
certamen, -inis (s.), strvf/nle. 
certe (advb. ), certainly, at 

any rate. 
ceteri, -ae, -a (adj. or pron.), 

the rest, remaining. 
ceterum (conj.), hut, whereas, 

charta, -ae (s. ), .iheet of paper. 
Charus. -i (s. ), Charu.s. 
Choaspes, -is (s. ), C/ioa-'spes 
cicatrix, -icis (s. ), gup, tvound, 

cieo, -ere, civi (vb.), stir tip, 

urge on. 
cingo, -ere, cinxi (vb. ), sur- 
circuitus, -us (s. ), circuit, way 

circumfusus, -a, -um (adj.), 

jwuring round, crowding 

round, scattered. 
circumpendeo, -ere (vb. ), 

Ikui'J round. 
circumsideo, -ere, -sedi (vb. ), 

circumspicio, -ere, -pexi ( vb. ), 

loot round for. 
circumvelior, -vebi, -vectus 

sum (vb. ), ride round. 

circumvenio, -ire, -vcni (vb.), 

civis, -is (s. ), fi-llow-couutry- 

clades, -is (s. ), disaster. 
clamor, -is (s. ), shouting. 
clams, -a, -uin {a,(lj.), famous, 

tirillian t, di.ft i)igu ished. 
dementia, -ae (s. ), mercy. 
Cleochares.-ae (s. ),Cl(ochares. 
Cleopliis (s. ), C'leophis. 
clipeatus, -i (s. ), shitld-hearer. 
Clitus, -i (s.), Clitns. 
clivus, -i (s. ), slope. 
Coenos, -i (s. ), Coenvs. 
coeo, -ire, -ii (vb. ), go to- 

coepi, -isse(vb.), begin, began. 
coerceo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), check: 
cohibeo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), check, 

cogo, -ere, coegi (vh.),fo7-ce, 

cognosco, -ere. -novi (vb. ), 

barn, get to know. 
cohors, -tis (s. ), guat-d, sgnad- 


collido, -ere, -lisi (v1).), dash 

colligo, -ere, -legi ( vb. ), colled, 

collis, -is (s.), hill. 
colo, -ere, -ui (vb.), dress, 

decorate, vena-ate, worship. 
color, -is (s. ), colour. 
columna, -ae (s. ), column. 
comissor, -ari, -atus sum 

(vb. ), reveJ, riot. 
comitor, -ari, -tatus sum (vb.), 

ai< (liupaiiy. 
commeatus, -us (s.), p7-o- 

cisioiui, supplies. 



commerciuni, -i (s. ), share. 
comminus (advb. ), at dose 

qiMiiirs, hand to hand. 
commode (advb. ), handily, 

stiitalili/, adcantageously. 
commoveo, -ere, -niovi (vb.), 

more thoroughly (pp. com- 

communis (adj.), shared, 

compello, -ere, -puli (vb.), 

comperio, -ire, -i (vb. ), learn. 
complector, -plecti, -plexus 

sum (vb. ), snrrozmd. 
compleo, -ere, -plevi (vb.), 

fill, Jill up. 
complures, -ium (pron. adj.), 

compos, -potis (adj.), ivith 

poioer over, in possession of. 
comprebendo, -ere, -prehendi 

(vb. ), .seize, catch. 
conatus, -us (s. ), attempt, trial. 
concedo, -ere, -cessi (vb.), 

go together, gather. 
concipio, -ere, -cepi (vb. ), 

catch, nourish, conceive. 
concito, -are, -avi (vb.), urge 

coDclamo, -are, -avi (vb.), 

shout together. 
concursatio, -nis {s.),.'ilcirm,ish. 
condo, -ere, -didi (vh.), found. 
conflcio, -fire, -feci (vb. ), per- 
form, finish. 
conflrmo, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

make strong, heal. 
confodio, -ere, -fodi (vb.), 

pierce, stcd) (pp. confossus). 
confugio, -ere, -fugi (vb. ), 

fiet together. 

congero, -ere, -gessi ( vb. ), hurl 

together, shower. 
coniungo, -ere, -iunxi (vb. )» 

join, associate. 
conloquor, -loqui, -locutus 

sum (vb. ), talk together. 
consequor, -i, -secutus sum 

(\h.), folloio, pursue. 
consero, -ere, -ui (vb. ), yom. 
consideo, -ere, -sedi (vb.), 

station oneself. 
consilium, i. (s.), design, plan. 
conspectus, -us (s.), look. 
conspicio, -ere, -spexi (vb.), 

constans, (adj.) consistent, 

sure, settled. 
constanter (advb. ), solidly, 

compactly^ .steadily. 
constituo, -ere, -ui(vb. ), agree, 

consulo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), advise, 

suggest, consult, ask. 
contego, -ere, -texi (vb.), 

Cover, concecd. 
contemplor, -ari, -atus sum 

(vb. ), contemplate, look at, 

contemptim (advb. ), contemp- 
contorqueo, -ere, -torsi (vb.), 

contra (advb.), on the other 

convenio, -ire, -veni (vb.), 

suit, belong to, agree. 
converto, -ere, -verti (vb.), 

convivalis, -e (adj.), suitable 

for banquets. 
copia, -ae(plur. copiae).7brce.s. 
copis, -dis (s.), scimitar. 



coram (advb.), /ace to /ace. 
comu, -us (a.), horn, wing. 

corona, -ae (3.)i crown. 
corpus, -Dris (s. ), body. 
corripio, -ere, -ui (vb.), aeize. 
cos, cotis (s. ), 7'ock, stone. 
Craterus, -i (s. ), Cra/erun. 
creber, -ra, -rum (adj.), many, 

conMaiit, abundant. 
crebro (advb.), coihstantly. 
credo, -ere, -didi (vb. ), believe, 

cremo, -are, -avi (vb. ), bum. 
cresco, -ere, crevi (vb. ), 

i/t'ow, increase. 
crocodilus, -i (s.), crocodile. 
crudus, -a, -urn (adj.), dry, 

cruor, -is (s. ), blood. 
crus, -ris (s. ), leg. 
cubiculum, -i (s. ), bed- 

cubitum, -i (s.), ciibit. 
cultus, -us (s. ), ivorship, 

cum (prep. abl. ) ivith, (conj.) 

when, since. 
cunctus, -a, -urn (adj.), a/l, the 

cur (advl). ), why. 
cura, -ae (s. ), care. 
euro, -are, -avi (vb. ), care for. 
curriculum, -i (s. ), chariot. 
curro, ere, cucurri (vb. ), 

currus, us (s.), chariot. 

cursus, -us (s. ), course, career. 

curvo, -are, -avi (vb.), hend, 
cur re. 

custodla, -ae (s. ), guardian- 
ship, custody. 

custos, -dis (s. ), guard, 

cutis, -is (s.), akin. 

Daedala(s. ), Daedala. 
Dahae, -arum (s.), the Dahans 

or Daans. 
debeo, -fre, -ui (vb.), oive, 

decemo, -ere, -crevi (vb. ), 

decide, resolve. 
decerpo, -6re, -cerpsi (vb.), 

decurro, -fire, -curri (vb.), run 

ilo)(fn{h\t. part.decursurus). 
decus, -oris (s. ), honour, 

dedecus, -oris (s.), disgrace, 

deditio, -nis (s. ), .surrender. 
dedo, -ere, -didi (vb. ), .stir- 

render, give up. 
defectio, -nis (s.), rebellion. 
defero, -ferre, -tuli (vb. ), 

bring down. 
deficiens (adj.), failing, faint- 
ing (pres. part, deficio). 
deflcio, -ere, -feci (vb.), /at/, 
defleo, -ere, -flevi (vb. ), weep 

dago, -ere, degi (vb. ), spend, 

pass (time), live. 
deicio, -ere, -eci (vb.), throw 

deinde (advb.), thence, next. 
deligo, -ore, -legi (vb. ), choose 

delpMnus, -i (s. ), dolphin. 
demitto, -ere, -niisi (vb.), 

lower, bend down. 



demolior, -iri, -itus sum (vb. ), 

jiulL down. 
demo, -ere, -nipsi (vb. ), put 

off, take off. 
demortuus, -a, -um (adj.), 

denego, -are, -avi (vb. ), 7-e/iisr, 

denuntio, -are, -avi (vb.), bid, 

depello, -ere, -puli (vb. ), 

drive down. 
descendo, -ere, -scendi (vb.), 

ijo down, dis7nou7it. 
desero, -6re, -ui (vb.), desert, 

desino, -ere, -sii (vb. ), cease. 
desisto, -ere, -stiti (vb.), 

desist from. 
despero, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

despair of. 
destino, -are, -avi (vb.), deter- 
mine, resolve. 
destituo, -ere, -ui ( vb. ), desert. 
destitutus, -a, -um (pp. of 

destituo) deserted, aban- 
destruo, -6re, -struxi (vb. ), 

destroy, diminish. 
desum, -esse, -fui (vb.), he 

lacking, fail. 
detraho, -ere, -traxi (vb.), 

carry away from, strip. 
detrecto, -are, -avi(vb.), shirk, 

deturbo, -are, -avi (vb. ), put 

to fight, dislodgi'. 
dewco, -ere, -ussi (vb.), bum 

up, parch. 
deus. -i (s.), god. 
dexter, -ra, -rum (adj.), right. 
dextera, -ae (s. ), right hand. 

Diardlnes (s. ), the Dianlincs. 
dicio, -nis (s.), nde, sivay. 
dico, -ere, dixi (vb.), say, 

dies, -ei (s.), day. 
dififusus, -a, -um (-aA].), spread 

out, abroad (diftundo). 
dignor, -ari, -atus sum (vb. ), 

think fit. 
dignus, -a, -um (adj.), worthy. 
diluo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), dilute, 

dimico, -are, -avi (-ui) (vb.), 

dimitto, -ere, -misi {\h.),send 

dirigo, -6re, -rexi (vb.), direct, 

steer, regulate. 
discedo, -ere, -ce.ssi (vb.), 

depart, move aivay in 

different directions. 
discribo, -ere, -scripsi (vb. ), 

mark off. 
discrimen, -inis (s. ), issue, 

crisis, struggle. 
dispar (adj.), unlike. 
dispersus, -a, -um (adj.), 

scattered (pp. dispergo). 
dispono, -ere, -posui (vb.), 

arrange, station. 
dissipo, -are, -avi (vb.), 

distinctus, -a, -um (adj.), 

marked out, remarkable, 

distinguo, -ere, -stinxi (vb.), 

mark, adorn. 
distribuo, -ere, -ui (vb.), dis- 
tribute, divide. 
diversus, -a, -um {^d].), facing 

another way (diverto). 
divido, -6re, -visi (vb.), divide. 



divinuB, -a, -um (adj.), 

ill rim-. 
do, (hire, dedi (vb.), give, 

doceo, -ere, -ui (vb.), teach, 
docilis, -e (adj.), ttacliable. 
documentum, -i (s.), loarning. 
dolor, -is (s. ), pain. 
dolus, -i (s. ), stratagem. 
dominus, -i (s. ), mastrr. 
domito, -are, -avi (vb.), tame, 

donee (conj.), tmtil. 
dono, -are, -avi (vb.), present, 

donum, -i (s.), gift. 
dorsum, -i (s.), back. 
dubitatio, -nis (s.), doubt, 

duco, -ere, duxi (vb.), lead, 

dum (advb. or conj.), while. 
duo, -ae, -o (adj.), two. 
durus, -a, -um (adj.), hard. 
dux, -cis (s. ), guide, leader. 


Ecbolima (s. ), Ecbolima. 

edico, -ere, -dixi (vb. ), com- 
mand, give orders. 

edo, -ere, -didi (vb. ), perform, 

educo, -6re, -duxi (vb.), lead 
forth, out. 

effectus, -us (s.), effect, re- 

eflQgies, -ei (s.), image. 

effluo, -ere, -fluxi (vb. ), speed 
forth, be delivered. 

effugio, -ere, -fugi (vb.),e6ca/>e 

effundo, -ere, -fudi (vb.), poi/r 

out, ])0ur forth, throw oj, 

egrredlor, -i, -gressua sum 

(vb. ), 170 out. 
egregrius, -a, -um (adj.), re- 
elabor, -i, -lapsus (vb.), dip 

elephantus, -i(s.), elephant. 
elisus, -a, -Tim (adj.), dashed 

out, squeezed out (elido). 
eloquor, -i, -locutus sum (vb.), 

sjieak Old. 
eluvies, -ei (s.), gul/i/,chantud. 
emineo, -ere, -ni (vb. ), be con- 

s/iiciious, shine. 
emlnus (advb.), from a dis- 
emitto, -ere, -misi (vb. ), send 

out, .send forth, discharye, 

enim (conj.), /or. 
eno, -are, -uavi (vb.), swim 

eo (advb.), thither, to that 

eo, ire, ivi (ii) (vb. ), go, 

epulae, -arum (a.), fta-st. 
epulor, -ari, -atus sum (vb. ), 

eques, -itis (s. ), horseman, 

plur. cavalry. 
equidem (advb.), indeed, for 

my part. 
equitatus, -us (s. ), cavalry. 
equus, -i (s. ), horse. 
ergo (conj.), therefore. 
Erices, -ae (s. ), Erices. 
erigo, -ere, -rexi (vb.), raise, 

erect, uplift. 



erro, -are, -avi (vb. ), wanfler 
(in confusion). 

error, -is (s. ), mistake, mis- 

Erythrus. i (s.), Erythrus. 

et (coiij.), and, both, even. 

etiam (conj. advb. ), also, even. 

etsi (ailvb. ), altliough, event/. 

Etymandrus, -i (s.), Etyman- 

evado, -ere, -vasi (vb. ), go out, 
up, escape. 

evello, -6re, -velli (vb.), tear 

eventus, -us (s.), result, issue. 

ex (prep. abl. ), from, out of. 

exaequo, -are, -avi(vb.), level, 

exaestuo, -are, -avi (vb. ), hoil, 
tie hot. 

exanimis, -e (adj.), lifeless. 

excedo, -ere, -cessi (vb.), ex- 
ceed, (JO out, rise. 

excipio, -ere, -cepi (vb. ), re- 
ceive, meet, entertain. 

excito, -are, -avi(vb.), arouse, 
stir up. 

excutio, -ere, -cussi (vb. ), 
shake out, .shoot, deliver. 

exequor, -equi, -ecutus sum 
( vb. ), carry out (ex-sequor). 

exemplum, -i (s. ), examjjle, 

exercitus, -us (s. ), army. 

exhaustus, -a, -um (adj.), ex- 
hausted, drained (exhau- 

exigo, -ere, -egi (vb. ), drive 

exiguus, -a, -um (adj.), small. 

eximius, -a, -uni (adj.), re- 
markahh', distinguished. 

existo, -ere, stiti ( vb. ),, 

exitium, -i (s. ), fate, destruc- 
exorno, -are, -avi (vb.), dress 

■up, adorn. 
expecto, -are, -a,\i(\h.),ivait, 

or unit for. 
expeditio, -nis(s.), expedition. 
expeditus, -a, -uni (adj.), 

handy, mobile. 
expello, ere, -puli (vb. ), drive 

experior, -periri, -pertus sum 

(vb.), 7nake trial of, gain 

experience in. 
expleo, -ere, -plevi (\h.), fll 

expositus, -a, -um (adj.), ex- 

]>o-^fd (pp. expono). 
expugno, -are, -avi (vb. ), take 

by storm. 
exsorbeo, -ere, -sorbui (vb.), 

suck out, ivash aivay. 
exterus, -a, -um (adj. ), foreign. 
extinctus, -a, -um (adj.), 

killed, lost (pp. exstinguo). 
extra (prep, ace), outside. 
extralio, -6re, -traxi (vb.), 

drag out, prolong. 
exurgo, -ere, ex(s)urrexi(vb.), 

rise (ex-surgo). 

fades, -ei (s.), face, appear- 
ance, .sight. 

facio, -ere, feci (vb. ), do, 

factum, -i (s. ), deed. 

fallo, -ere, fefelli (vb. ), de- 



falz, -cis (s.), reaping-hook. 

fama, -ae (s.), fame, renown, 

fastigium, -i. (s.), top, level, 

fatigo, -are, -avi (vb. ), iveary, 
tire (pp. fatigatus). 

fatum, -i (s. ), fate. 

fax, -cis (s. ), torch. 

felicitas, -tatis (s.), (jood for- 
tune, (food hick. 

felix [ad].), fortunate, lucky. 

femina, -ae (s. ), woman. 

femxir, -iiiis (s.), thigh. 

ferax (adj.), bearing, produc- 

fere (advb. ), about, nearly, 

ferio, -ire, (-ii) (vb.), -strike. 

ferme (advb.), nearly. 

fero, ferre, tuli (vb.), carry, 
bear, say. 

fervor, -is (s.), heat, enthu- 

fides, -ei (s.), faith, fidelity, 
pledge, word. 

flducia, -ae (s. ), confidence. 

figo, -ere, fixi (vb.), fix, 

filius, -i (s.), son. 

finis, -is, plur. fines, borders. 

fio, fieri, factus (vb. ), hajypen, 
he done. 

firmo, -are, -avi(vb.), confirm. 

flagitium, -i (s.), offence, 

fiamma, -ae {s.), fire, flame. 

fiexus, -us (s. ), bend. 

fluctus, -us (s.), wave. 

fluens (adj.), failing, fainting. 

flumen. -inis (s. ), nver. 

fluvius, -i (s.J, river. 

folium, -i (s.), leaf. 

fore = futurum esse. 

foret - esset. 

forma, -ae (s. ), beauty, size, 

limit, shape. 
formo, -are, -avi (vb.), form, 

forsltan (advb.), perhaps. 
forte (advb.), by chance. 
fortis, -e (adj.), strong, brave. 
fortultus, -a, -uin (adj.), /or- 

tin'lon", accidental. 
fortuna, -ae (&.), fortune. 
fossa, -ae (s. ), trench, ditch. 
fragilis, -e(adj.),/eeWe, weak. 
frater, -ris (s.), brother. 
fremitus, -iis (s.), outcry, 

frequens (adj.), numerous, 

fretum, -i (s.), .sea. 
frigesco, -ere, frixi (vb. ), grow 

frigus, -oris (s.), cold. 
frons, -dis (s. ), foliage, leaf- 
age, haves. 
frons, -ntis (s. ), front, fore- 

fruges. -11111 (s. ), crops. 
frumentum, -i (s.), corn, food. 
frustra (advb. ), in vain. 
fuga, -ae {s.), flight, escape. 
fugio, -ere, fugi (vb.), flee, 

funditor, -is (s.), slinger. 
fundo, -ere, fudi(vb. ), spread, 

furo, -ere, furui (vb.), rage. 
fusus, -a, -um (adj.), poured 

(pp., fnndo). 
futurus, -a, -um (adj.), 





Ganges, -is (s.), the Oange-'^. 
gaudeo, -ere, gavisus (vb. ), 

gelidus, -a, -um (adj.), cold. 
gemma, -ae (s.), pi'enoiiii 

stone, gem. 
genero, -are, -avi {\h.), breed, 

gens, -tis (s.), nation, tribe. 
genu, -us (s.j, knee. 
genus, -eris (s.), kind. 
gesto, -are, -avi (vb.), 

gigno, -ere, genui (vb. ), pro- 
duce, bear. 
gladius, -i (s.), sword. 
gloria, -ae (s.), glory. 
gradus, -us (s.), footing, step. 
Graecus, -a, -um (adj.), Greek. 
gratia, -ae {s.), favour. 
gratultus, -a, -um (adj.),/?'ee 

of charge. 
gratulor, -ari, -atus (vb. dat. ), 

gravatus, -a, -um (adj.), 

borne down (gravo). 
gravis, -e (adj.), heavy. 
grex, -gis (s.), crowd. 


babena, -ae (s.), rein. 

habeo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), Aare, 

hold, keep, consider. 
habitus, -us (s.), cast, >ihape, 

baereo, -ere, haesi (vb. ), 

Hages, -is (s.), Hagcs. 
basta, -ae (s.), spear. 
baud (advb.), not. 

baurlo, -ire, hausi (vb.), snrk 

in, draw away. 
bedera, -ae (s.), ivy. 
Hepbaestion, -is (s.), Heph- 

berba, -ae (s. ), grass. 
Hercules, -is (s.), Hercules. 
blc, baec, hoc (adj. or pron.), 

this, that. 
bine (advb.), hence, here, 

homo, -inis (s.), person, human 

bonesto, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

bonos, -oris (s.), Itonour. 
borrendus, -a, -um (adj.), 

borridus, -a, -um (adj.), rough, 

horror, -is (s.), shuddering, 

hospitaliter (advb.), hospit- 
bostis, -is (s. ), enemy. 
bumanus, -a, -um (adj.), 

humor, -is(s.), moisture. 
humus, -i (s.), ground. 
Hydaspes, -ae (s.), the Hy- 


iaceo, -ere, -ui (vb.), lie. 
iaculum, -i {s.), javelin. 
iam (advb.), now, by this 

iamque (advb.), now. 
ibi (advb.), there. 
ictus, -a, -um (adj.), struck, 

ictus, -us (s.), blou\ 



idcirco (advb. conj.), there- 
idem, eadem, idem (pron. 

adj.), the same. 
igitvi (conj.), tht re/ore. 
ignarus, -a, -um (adj. ), vjnor- 

Ignis, -is (s.),fire. 
ignobilis, -e (adj.), unhwon. 
ignotus, -a, -um (adj.), M;t- 

llle, -a, -ud (adj. or pron.), 

that, he, .she. 
mic (advb.), there. 
illido, -ere, -lisi (vb. ), dash 

upon, ofjainM. 
Ulinc (advb.), thence, on that 

imber, -ris (s. ), shower, rain, 

imitor, -ari, -atus sum (vb.), 

immemor, -is, -e (advb. ), for- 

immitto, -ere, -misi (vb. ), 

lannrh, send af/ainst. 
immixtus, -a, -um (adj.), 

mixf'l irifh, into. 
immobilis, e (adj.), immov- 

impedio. -ire, -ivi (vb. ), 

hinder, check, prevent. 
imperator, -is (s. ),cummander, 

imperatum, -i (s.), command, 

ordi-r, instruction. 
Imperium, -i (s.), command, 

rule, empire. 
impero, -are, -avi (vb ), tjive 

impetro, -are, -avi (vb.), fjain, 


impetus, -fis (s.), attack; force ^ 

impleo, -f're,-plevi(vb.),^7/i//j. 
impllco, -are, -avi (-ui) (vl). ), 

10 'ntaiii/le in. 
impono, -ere, -posui (vb.), pid 

in. Jit on, fit to (the string). 
improviduB, -a, -um (adj.), 

n''t looking ahead. 
improvisus, -a, -um (adj.), 

impunitas, -talis (s.), impu- 
imus, -a, -um (adj.), loweM, 

in (prep.), with ace. into, 

amongst, against, with abl. 

in, am,'>ng. 
incendo. -t're, -cendi (vb.), 

>•'/ on rift. 
inceptum, -i (s. ), attempt, 

ent'-rprise (incipio). 
incertus, -a, -um (adj.), un- 
incesso, -ere, -Ivi (vb.), attack. 
incido, -ere, -cidi (vb.), J'aJl 

upon, Int. 
incitamentum, -i (s.), incite- 

inclino, -are, -avi (vb. ), hend, 

inclitus, -a, -um (adj.), 

includo, -ere, -clusi (vb.), 

shut in. 
incola, -ae (s. ), inliabitatit, 

incolo. t're, -ui (vb. ), inhabit. 
incommodum. -i (s.), dis- 

adcantagf , disaster. 
incommodus, -a, -um (adj.), 




Incomposite (advh.), in a f//«- 

onitrly irnii. 
inconditus, -a, -um (adj.), ""- 

incumbo, -ere, -cubui (vb.), 

hnn oil. 
incutio, -ere, -cnssi (vb. ), 

■'^frike ... into. 
inde (advb.), thence, next. 
Index, -icis (s.), sign, symp- 
tom, evidence. 
India, -ae(s.), India. 
inditus, -a, -um (adj.), given. 
indulgeo, -ere, -Isi (vb. ), show 

induo, -?re, -i (vb.), put on. 
Indus, -i (s.), the Indus. In- 
dus, -a, -um (adj.), Indian. 
industria, -ae, de industria = 

ineo, -ire, -ii (vb.), enter in. 
inequitabilis, -e (adj.), un- 

si(i/(ib/t for horses. 
inermis, -e (adj.), iinarmed. 
inexpertus, -a, -um (adj.), %in- 

tried, inexperienced. 
inferior, -ius (adj.), lower. 
infero, -ferre, -tuli (vb. ), 

rarri/ into, carry again xt. 
infestus, -a, -um (adj.), coni- 

batant. formidable. 
influo, -fluere, -fluxi (vb. ), 

How into. 
infra (prep, ace), below. 
infractus, -a, -um (adj.), un- 

infundo, -Ore, -fudi {\'b.),ponr 

ingenixim, -i (s.), disposition, 

ingens (adj.), huge, enormous, 


ingero, -ere, -gessi (vb.), 

throir at, heap tipon. 
ingredior, -i, -gressus sum 

(vb. ), eider. 
inhabilis, -e (adj.), unhandy, 

inhibeo, -ere, -ui (vb.), check. 
inicio, -ere, -ieci (vb. ), throw 

... against, lay ... upon, in- 
inline, -6re, -levi(vb.), .wiear 

upon, scent. 
inluvles, -ei (s.), mud. 
inops (adj.), helpless, at a loss, 

d< ■•ititute. 
inquam [defective verb), 3rd 

per. inqnit, ' says he.' 
inquino, -are, -avi (vb.), .sYae«, 

inritatus, -a, -um (adj. ),arous 

fd, irritated (inrito). 
insequor, -i, -secutus sutn 

[\h.), follow up. 
insidiae, -arum (s. ), ambu-^h, 

insigne, -is (s.), symbol, trap- 
pings, emblem. 
insignis, -e (adj.), distin- 

gui.thed, remarkalile. 
insisto, -^re, -stiti [\\>.), pre.'^s 

insolitus, -a, -um (adj.), un- 
instabilis, -e {&A].), .unstable, 

instinctus, -a, -um (adj.), in- 

.stinct, in.^pired (in-stiiiguo). 
instituo, -ere, -ui (\h.), train, 

insto, -are, -stiti (vb.), press 

insula, -ae (s.), island. 



insum, esse, -fui (vb.), he in. 
integer, -ra, -rum (adj.), 

irhoh', unwonnded. 
intelligo, -ere, lexi (vb. ), see, 

undf'r stand. 
intendo, -ere, -tendi (vb.), 

sjrread, devise. 
inter (prep, ace), amoiKjM, 

intercipio, -ere, -cepi (vb.), 

interfluo, -t-re, -xi (vb.), flou: 

betwefu, through. 
interim (advb. ), incanivhile. 
interimo, -6re, -emi (vb.), kill. 
interior, -ius (adj.), inner, in- 
interituB, -us (s.), death. 
interpono, -ere, -posui (vb.), 

put in between. 
interpres, -etis (s.), inter- 

interritus, -a, -um (adj.), un- 

terrijied, undismayed (in- 

interrogo, -are, -avi (vb.), ask 

intervallum, -i (s. ), distance, 

intolerandus, -a, -um (adj.), 

intonsus, -a, -um (adj.). m/i- 

shaved, unshorn. 
intra (prt^. ace.), ivithin, by. 
intrepidus, -a, -um (adj.), 

undismayed, steady. 
intro, -are (vb. ), enter. 
intueor, -eri, -itus sum (vb. ), 

look iipon, watch. 
inula, -ae (s.), elecampane. 
invado, -ere, -vasi (vb. ), yo 
against, attack. 

Inveho, -ere, -vexi (vb ), im- 
port, introduce. 
invebor, -i, -vectussum (vb. ), 

ride against, charge. 
invenio, -ire, -veni (vb. ), 

Invlcem (advb.), in tuiii. 
invidus, -a, -um (&A}.),jealous, 

invlsitatus, -a, -um (adj.), 

unseen, unfamiliar. 
Invoco, -are, -avi (vb. ), call 

upon, summon. 
ipse, -a, -um(pron. adj.), /iim- 

self, herself, itself. 
ira, -ae (s. ), anger. 
is, ea, id (pron. adj.), he, she, 

it, that. 
ita (advb.), so, thus. 
itaque (conj. advb.), so. 
iter, -ineris (s.), road, path, 

iubeo, -ere, iussi (vb.), order, 

bid, cominand. 
iugum, -i (s.), crest, peak, 

iungo, -ere, iuuxi (vb.), join, 

lupiter, lovis (s.), Jupiter, 

ius, -ris (s.), laic, decision, 

judgmr-nt, right. 
iuvenis, -is (s. ), youth. 

labor, -is (s.), labour, toil. 
labor, -i, -psus (vb. ), sliji, 

glide, fall. 
lacertus, -1 (s.), upper part of 

thi. arm. 
lacuna, -ae (s. ), hole, pool. 



laetitia, -ae (s.), cheer/ithiess, 
meii-imenf, dissipation. 

laetus, -a, -uin(adj.), pleased. 

laevus, -a, -uni (adj.), left. 

lancea, -ae (s.), lance. 

languidus, -a, -um (adj.), 
faint, feeble. 

lapillus, -i (s.), small stone, 

lapsus, -lis (s.), current. 

large (advb.), abundantly. 

largus, -a, -um (adj.), abun- 

lasclvia, -ae (s.), tcantonness. 

late (advb.), far a)id wide. 

later, -eris (s.), brick. 

latitude, -inis (s.), breadth. 

latratus, -us (s. ), barl-ing. 

latus, -eris (s.), side. 

laudo, -are, -avi (vb.), praise, 

laurus, -i (-us) (s. ), laurel. 

laus, -dis (s. ), praise, fame. 

lectica, -ae (s. ), litter. 

legatio, -nis (s. ), embassy. 

legatus, -i (s.), ambassador. 

lenis, -e {adj. ), gentle, smooth. 

Leonnatus, -i (s.), Leonnatiis. 

letum, -i (s.), death. 

levis, -e (adj.), light. 

16vitas, -tatis (s. ), lightness. 

levitas, -tatis (s.), smooth- 

leviter (advb.), lightly. 

Jevo, -are, -avi (vb.), raise, 

Iiiber, -i (s.). Liber, Bacchus, 

liber, -ri (s.), hark, book. 

liberalitas, -tatis (s. ), liber- 

libertas, -tatis (s.), liberty. 

libido, -inis (s.), fancy, de- 
praved taste, ivhini. 

libo, -are, -avi (vb. ), pour. 

licentia, -ae (s. ), licence. 

licet (defective verb), it is 

lingua, -ae (s.), tongue. 

linteum, -i (s.), turban, linen 

Unum, -i {s.),flax. 

liquidus, -a, -um (adj.), c/ear. 

littera, ae (s), letter of the 

litus, -oris (s.), shore, coast. 

loco, -are, -avi (vb.), station, 
set up. 

locus, -i (s.), place, pi. loca 
neighbourhood, district. 

longus, -a, -um (adj.), long. 

lorica, -ae (s. ), tunic. 

lubricus, -a, -um (adj.), slip- 

luna, -ae (s. ), moon. 

lux. -cis (s. ), light. 

luxuria, -ae (s), iuxtuiotisness, 


Macedones, -um (ace. -as), 
(s. ), Macedonians. 

macbina, -ae (s.), machine, 

magis (advb.), more. 

magnificentia, -ae (s.), mag- 

magnitudo, -inis (s.), size. 

magnus, -a, -um (cid].), great. 

maior, -us (adj.), greater, 
more jiowerfid. 

malum, -i (s. ), evil (idiomatic 
quae ... malum, whatever t) 

mando, -aie, -avi (vb. ), en- 
tru.<t, command. 



manifestus, -a, -urn (adj.), 

obvious, palpable. 
mano, are, -avi [vh.], Jloir. 
manus, -us (s. ), hand, trunk, 

number, band (ad mamun = 

at hand). 
mare, -is (s. ), sea. 
margarita, -ae (s. ), p^arl. 
mater, -ris (s.), mo/her. 
materia, -ae (s.), mnterial. 
maxime (advb. ), moxtly. 
maximus, -a, -um (adj.), very 

f/reat, (jreatest. 
Mazagae, -arum (s.), Maza- 

medius, -a, -um (adj.), middle, 

central, general. 
Meleager, -i (s.), Meleager, 
melior, -us (adj.), better. 
melius (adv.), better. 
membrum, -i (s. ), limh. 
memor, -is, -e (adj.), mind/id. 
memoro, -are, -avi (\'h.),7nen- 

tion, call to mind. 
mensis, -is (s. ), month. 
mentior, -iri, -itus (vb. ), lie, 

mentum, -i (s.), chin. 
meridianus, -a, -um (adj.), 

meridies, -ei (s.), mid-day, 

Meros, -i (s. ), Meros. 
merum, -i (s. ), icine. 
meta, -ae (s. ), turning-point, 

metus, -us (s.), fear, terror. 
miles, -itis (s. ), soldier, type 

of soldier. 
militaris, -e (adj.), military. 
milito, are (vb.), make war, 

mille (adj.), thousand, pi. 

iniliia (s. ), thousands. 
Minerva, -ae (s. ), Minerva. 
minister, -ri (s.), sirrant. 
minor, -us (adj.), smaller, 


minus (advb.), less. 

mire fadvb. ), vjonderfidly, 

miserabilis, -e (adj ), pitiable. 

miseratio, -nis (s.), pity. 

misericordla, -ae (a.), merci- 
Julness, pi/y. 

mitis, -e (adj.), mild. 

mltto, -ere, mi&i (vb. ), send. 

raobilis, -e (adj.), movable. 

modicus, -a, -um (adj,), mode- 
rate, gradual. 

modo (advb.), only, just. 

modus, -i (s. ), way, manntr, 
limit, phase. 

moenia, -um (s.), wails. 

moles, -is (s. ), mas^. 

molior, -iri, -itus (vb. ), strive, 
struggle with, build, form. 

mollis, -e (adj.), gentle. 

momentum, -i (s.), instant. 

moneo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), advise. 

mons, -tis (s. ), mountain, hill. 

monstro, -are, -avi (vb. ), 
point out, show. 

moror, -ari, -atus (vb. ), delay, 
keep waiting. 

mors, -tis (s. ), death, killing, 

mortalis, -e (adj. ), mortal. 

mos, -ris (s. ), pi. mores, cus- 
t07ns, character. 

motus, -us (s. ), movement, vio- 
lence (terrae motus, earth- 

moveo, -ere, movi (vb. ), move, 



mox (advb.), soon. 

mulco, -are, -avi (vb. ), hurt, 

nrnltum (advb.), rmich (s. ), a 
great part. 

multus, -a, -um (adj.), much, 
pi. many. 

mundus, -i (s.), world. 

munimentuin, -i [s.), fortifica- 

munio, -ire, -ii (\h.), fortify. 

munus, -eris (s.), task. 

muralis, -e (adj.), suitable for 
throiring at ivaJls. 

murus, -i (s.), wall. 

muto. -are, -avi (vb.), change. 

Mylleas, -ae (s. ), Mylleas. 


nam (conj.),/or. 

natura, -ae (s.), nature. 

natus, -a, -um (adj.), horn 
(with dat. .suitable for). 

naviglum, -i (s.), vessels, ship- 

navis, -is (s.), ship. 

ne (coDJ.), lest, ne ... quidem, 
not . . . even. 

nee (couj.), neither ...nor, nor. 

necessitas, -tatis (s.), necessity. 

nego, -are, -avi (vb. ), deny. 

nemo, -inis (pron.), no one. 

nemus, -oris (s.), grove, forest. 

Nicanor, -is (s.), Nicanor. 

niliil, (pron.), nothing. 

Nilus, -i (s. ), Nile. 

nimbus, -i (s.), cloitd, storm. 

nisi (conj.), unless. 

nisus, -us (s.), effort. 

nitor, -ti, nisus (nixus) (vb.), 
strive, struggle. 

nix, -ivis (s.), snoio. 
no, nare, navi (vb.), swiyn. 
nobilis, -e (adj.), noble, high- 
noctumus, -a, -um (adj.), 

night hi. 
nomen, -inis (s. ), name. 
non (advb.), not. 
nondum (advb.), not yet. 
nonnuUus, -a, -um (adj.), not 

none, some, one or two. 
nonus, -a, -um (adj.), ninth. 
Nora, -ae (s.), Nora. 
noscito, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

nosco, -ere, novi (vb.), learn, 

get to hww. 
nota, -ae (s. ), mark. 
noto, -are, -avi (vb.), mark. 
notus, -a, -um (adj.), hionm. 
novem (adj.), nine. 
novus, -a, -um (adj.), new, 

nox, noctis (s.), night. 
nudus, -a, -um (adj.), bare. 
nullus, -a, -um (adj.), no, 

numen, -inis (s.), power. 
numerus, -i (s. ), number. 
nuntio, -are, -avi (vb. ), report, 

nuntius, -i (s. ), messenger. 
nuper (advb.), lately. 
nusquam (advb.), nowhere. 
nutrio, -ire, -ivi (vb. ), produce, 

Nysa, -ae (s. ), Nysa. 


obduco, -?re, -duxi (vb.), draw 
over, cover over. 



obductus, -a, -uni (adj. ), drawn 
ovfr, rei/iiii/ (obduco). 

obeqiiito, -are, -avi (vh. ), ride 
in frotit oJ\ ride a(/ain>it. 

obicio, -ere, -eci (vb. ), throw 
in the, way, send to nwet, 

obligo, -are, -avi ( vb. ), hind up. 
obliviscor, -ci, -litiis (vb.), 

obmolior, -iri, -itns (vb. ), piU 

■up in the ivay, or affainst. 
obruo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), over- 

obscuritas, -talis (s. ), dark- 

obscurus, a, -um (adj.), dark. 
obses, -idis (s.), hostage. 
obsideo, -ere, -sedi (vb.). he- 

"iegp, hfockade, beset. 
obsidio, -nis (s. ), sieije, hlock- 

obstrepo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), in- 

trr-rupt, drown. 
obstringo, -ere, -strinxi (vb. ), 

obtero, -ere, -trivi (vb.), 

crush under-foot, trend 

obtineo, -ere, -ui (vb.), hold. 
obviam (advb. or prep.), in 

(he way. to meet. 
obvius, -a, -um (adj.), against, 

to ineet. 
occidens (adj. or s. ), Wt^t, 

occido, -ere, -cidi (vb. ),/«//. 
occido, -ere, -cidi (vb. ), ki//. 
occultus, -a, -um (adj.), 

occupo, -are, -avi (vb.), -teize 

Jirst, anticipate. 

occurro, -ere, -ciirri (vb.), 

Tiui't, fjo to meet. 
oceanua, -i (s.), ocean. 
oculUB, -i (s.), eye. 
odium, -i (s. ), haired. 
odor, -is (s. ), smell, perfume,. 
offendo, -ere, -fendi (vb.), 

offend, (jive offence to. 
oflfero, -ferre, obtuli (vb. ), 

bring forward, offer (pp. 

olim (advb.), informer times, 

omitto, -ere, -misi (vb. ), let go. 
omuis, -e (adj.), all. 
OmpMs (s. ), Omphis. 
onero, -are, -avi (vb. ), weigh 

opera, -ae (s.), work, trouble. 
operatus, -a, -um (adj.), 

busied, devoted. 
opes, opum {%.), riches, wealth. 
opperior, -iri, -pertus (vb.), 

oppidanus, -i (s.), citizen, pi. 

oppidum, -i (s.), town. 
opportunitas, -talis (s. ), op- 

portuni spot, advaiitar/e. 
opportunus, -a, -um (adj.), 

op)iortune, seasonable. 
opprimo, -ere, -pressi (vb.), 

oj/press, surprise. 
opulentia, -ae (s.), richeJi, 

opulentus, -a, -um (adj.), 

opus, -eris (s.), work, labour, 

orbis, -is (s. ), or6, circle. 
ordo, -inis (s.), order, jyro- 

ce-ssion, progress, rank. 



oriens, -ntis (s.), the east. 

origo, -inis (s.), ori(ilii. 

orior, -iri, ortus sum (vb.), 

omo, -are, -avi (vb.), de- 
corate, adorn. 

ortus, -a, -um (adj.), vixen 
(pp. of orior). 

OS, oris (s. ), mouth, face, 

ostendo, -ere, -tendi (vb.), 
display, exhibit. 

ostentatio, -nis (s. ), shoxi', 
display, exhibition. 

otium, -i (s. ), lei.mre, idleness. 


par (adj.), equal, fair, rii/hf, 

corresponding (to). 
paratus, -a, -um (adj.), ready, 

parco, -ere, peperci (vb. ), 

s/iare, show mercy. 
parcius(advb.), ?no?-eca!/<Jozt«- 

parens, -ntis (s. ), ptarent. 
paro, -are, -avi (vb. ), prepare. 

make ready (paratus pp. 

pars, -tis (s. ), part. 
parum (advb. ), a little, hardly, 

not at all. 
parumper (advb.), to a certain 

parvus, -a, -um (adj.), small. 
passim (advb.), everywhere. 
pateo, -ere, -ui (\h.),lie o]>en, 

be obviojis, be open, be 

pater, -ris (s.), father. 
patera, -ae (s. ), bowi. 

patior, pati, passus (vb.), 

■-lifer, allow. 
patrius, -a, -um (adj.), ances- 
tral, national. 
pauci, -ae, -a (adj. or pron.), 

paulo (advb. ), a little, slightly. 
pavidus, -a, -um (adj.), /e«r- 

fid, tei~rified. 
paver, -is (s. ), terror, panic. 
pax, -eis (s. ), peace. 
pecto, -ere, pexi (vb.), comb. 
pectus, -oris (s.), heart, breast. 
pecus. -oris (s. ), herd of cattle, 

foci; etc., sheep, ox, beast. 
pedes, itis (s. ), foot-soldier 

(collective, infantry), 
pelex, -icis (s. ), mistress. 
pendeo, -ere, pependi (vb.), 

hang, be suspended. 
pendo, -ere, pepeudi (vb. ), 


penetro, -are, avi (vb.), ;?e?ie- 
trate, make one's way. 

per (prep, ace), through, over. 

percello, -ere, -culi (vb. ), 

percontor, -ari (vb.), ask 

percxirro, -ere, -curri (vb. ). 
run round. 

percutio, -ere, -cussi (vb.), 

Perdiccas, -ae (s. ), Perdiccas. 

perditus, -a, -um (adj.), aban- 

perdomo, -are, -ui (vb. ), tame, 

perduco, -^re, -duxi (vb.), 
bring to, lead through. 

perennis, -e (adj.), unfailing. 

perfidia, -ae (s. ), treachery. 


QUINT US cunrius rufus. 

pergo, -ere, perrexi (vb. ), <lo 

on, continue, prexs jbrivard. 

periclitor, -ari, -tatus (vb. ), 

run n risk. 
periculum, -i (s.), danrjer. 
peritus, -a. -um (adj.), ex- 

pericmed (gen.), 
permitto, -ere, -misi (vb. ), 

enlrn-'it, ijrant, allow. 
pemicies, -ei (s. ), destruction. 
perpetuus, -a, -nra (adj.), 

n It in'ernipfed, invariable. 
perrumpo, -ere, -rupi (vb.), 

break ikrouf/h. 
persevero, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

persequor, -i, -secutus (vb. ), 

folio If up. 
Persicus, -a, -um (adj.), Per- 
perspicio, -ere, -spexi (vb. ), 

survey, examine. 
perterritus, -a, -um (adj.), 

thorouijhly frightened. 
pertinacia, -ae (s.), pertina- 
city, persistence, obstinacy. 
pervenio, -ire, -veni (vb.), 

come throuifh to, arrive at. 
pervius, -a, -um (adj.), pass- 
able over. 
pes, -dis (s.),foot. 
peto, -6re, -ii (vb.), ask for, 

seek, aim at. 
petra, -ae (s. ), rock, hill. 
phalanx, -ngis (s. ), phalanx. 
pignus, -oris (s. ), pledije. 
piliun, -i (s.), javelin, spfar. 
placeo, -ere, -ui (vb.), placet, 

it pleases, seems good. 
placidus, -a, -um (adj.), calm. 
plaga, -ae(3.), region, quarter, 

planus, -a, -um (adj.). _//a<. 
plaustrum, -i (s. ), ivik/ou. 
plenus, -a, -um (adj.),/«//. 
plerique, -aeque, -aque (adj. 

or pron. ), most, the major- 
plurimus, -a, -um (adj.), 

most ; (s. ), very much. 
plus, pluris (s. or adj.), 

poena, -a^{a.), pejuxlty. 
Polypercon, -is (s.), Poly- 

pomum, -i (&), fruit. 
pondus, -eris (s.), weight. 
pono, -6re, posui (vb. ), /Vace, 

pitch, put, station, set duii-v. 
popularis, -e (adj.), plur. 

populare.s, -ium (s.), the 

common ptojde. 
Porus, -i (s.), Porus. 
possum, posse, potui (vb.), be 

able, can. 
post (prep, ace), after. 
postea fudvb.), aftenrards. 
posterns, -a, um (adj.), next. 
postquam (conj. ), after, since. 
potestas, -tatis (s. ), power. 
potior ladvb.), more poicerfnl. 
potior, -iri, -itus (vb.), gain, 

praealtus, -a, -um (adj.), iwy 

praebeo, -ere, -ui(vb.),«i7>;>/y, 

praeceps, -itis (adj.), head- 
long, sheer. 
praecipio, -6re, -cepi (vb. ), 

instruct, command. 
praecipito, -are, -avi (vb.), 

hurl headlong. 
praecipue (advb.), especially. 



praedico, -ere, -dixi (vb.), 

praeda, -ae (s.), booty, spoil. 
praefero, -ferre, -tuli (vb. ), 

carry in front of. 
praegravis, -e (adj.), very 

praegredior, -i, -gressus (vb. ), 

fjo ahead. 
praelongus, -a, -um (adj.), 

Vki-y long. 
praemitto, -ere, -misi (vb.), 

send ah'-ad. 
praeparo, -are, -avi (vb.), 

prepare, proi'ide. 
praeruptus, -a, um (adj.), 

sheer, steep (pp. prae- 

praeses, -idis (s. ), guardian. 
praesto, -are, -stiti (vb.), 

perform, surpaf<s (dat. ). 
praesto (advb. ), pre.^ent. 
praesum, -esse, -fui (vb. ), he 

in command. 
praeter (prep, ace), besides, 

praeterfluo, -ere, -fluxi (vb.), 

fow past. 
precor, -ari, -atus (vb.), pray. 
pretiosus, -a, -um (adj.), 

pretium, -i (s.), price, reward. 
primo (advb.), at first. 
primiun (advb.), at first, 

principio {a.A\h.), first, in the 

beginning (abl. of priiici- 

pristinus, -a, -um (adj.),/or- 

prius (advb.), before, for- 

privatus, -a, -um (adj.), in a 

prirate capacity, unojicial. 
pro (prep, abl.), in proportion 

to, instead of, as, for. 
procedo, -lire, -cessi (vb.), 

advance, go forth. 
procella, -ae (s. ), sloi'ni, tem- 

procul(advb. ), in the distance. 
procumbo, -ore, -cubui (vb.), 

fall for icard. 
proditor, -is (s.), betrayer, 

proelior, -ari, -atus (vb.), 

proelium, -i (s.), battle. 
proficio, -ere, -feci (vb.), 

secure, profit. 
profundo, -6re, -fudi (vb.), 

shed, pour forth. 
profundus, -a, -um (adj.), deep. 
prohibeo, -ere, -ui (vb.), pro- 

hibit, prevent. 
promissum, -i (s. ), promise, 

pledge (promitto). 
promitto, -ere, -misi (vb.), 

promptus, -a, -um (adj.),/o?-- 

ward, bold. 
propemodum (advb.), nearly, 

propinquus, -a, -um (adj.), 

propior, -us (adj. comp. ), 

propter (jjrep. ace), on ac- 

conut of. 
propugnator, -is (s.), fighter- 
in-front, champion, defen- 
prosterno, -ere, -stravi (vb.), 

stretch out. 



protlnus (iulvb. ), /or//ciri/h 

proximua, -a, -uin (adj.) 

neaifst, ne.v/. 
proveho, -ere, -vexi (vb. ) 

urt/e forward, impel. 
provolvo, -ere, -volvi (vb.) 

roll fvrlh. 
Ptolemaeus, i (s. ), Piolony, 
publicus. -a, -um(adj.),;/(tWi'c 

' in publico,' in public. 
pudor, -is (s.), shame. 
puer, -i (s. ), hoy, child. 
pugna, -ae (a.), ji(f/it. 
pugno, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

Ji;/ht. . 
pulcher, -ra, -rum (adj.), 

pulso, are, -avi (vb.), heat. 
purgamentum, -i (s.), scour- 
purpura, -ae (s.), purple. 
puto, -are, -avi (vb.), Ihink. 

qua (advb.), ivhere. 
quadriga, -ae (s. ), charioteer. 
quaero, ere, quaesivi (vb.), 

quam (conj.), than. 
quanto (advb.), as much as. 
quantum, -i (pron.), hoiv 

quantus, -a, -um (adj.), as 

<ireat as. 
quartus, -a, -um(iidi.), fourth. 
quasi (conj. or advb.), as 

qui,quae,quod(pron.or adj.), 

)cho, n-hich. ivhat. 
quia (conj.), because. 


cunque (pron.), u-honofrir. 
quidam, quaedam, quoddam 

(pion. or adj.), «, a certain. 
quidem (advb.), indeed; ne 

... quidem, Jiot ... even. 
quini deni (numeral adj. dis- 
tributive), fifteen ajnece. 
qnippe (adv. or conj.), mi- 

quis, quid (indef. pron.), any 

one, anythinij (interrog. 

pron. ), who ? what ? 
quisquam (emphatic pron.), 

uuy one. 
quisquis (pron.), ichoever. 
quod (conj.), txcau^e, that. 
quondam (advb.), once, lomj 

quoniam (conj.), since. 
quoque (conj. or advb.), also, 

quot (adj. ), as many as. 


rabies, -ei (s.), madness. 

radix, -icis (s. ), root, spur. 

ramus, -i (s. ), hough, branch. 

rarus, -a, -um (adj.), remark- 

ratio, -nis (s.), plan. 

ratis, -is (.s. ), vessel, ship, raft. 

ratus, a, -um (adj. pp. of 
reor), thinking, supposing. 

receptus, -us (s.), retnat. 

recido, -ere, -cidi (vb., JaJl) 

recipio, -ere, -cepi (vb.), re- 
ceive (se recip6re, icithdraw 
onesAf, retire). 

rector, -is (s.), driver. 



rectus, a, -uui {iidi.),strai<jltt. 
recubo, -are. -ui (vb. ), »r- 

reddo, -6re, -didi (vb.), i/ire 

back, deliver, pay. 
redeo, -ire, -ii (vb. ), <jo back; 

redigo, -ere, egi (vb.), brhuj, 

redimitus, -a, -um (adj.), 

bound, tjarlanded (pp. of 

refero, -ferre, rettuli (vb.), 

brbuj back. 
refugio, -ere, -fugi (vb.), flee 

refulgeo, -ere, -fulsi (vb.), 

regia, -ae (s.), palace (regia 

regina, -ae (s.), queen. 
regie, -nis (s.), district, direc- 
regius, -a, -um (adj.), royal. 
regno, -are, -avi (vb. ), reign. 
regnum, -i (s.), kimidom. 
rego, -ere, rexi (vb. ), steer, 

r/uide, control. 
regiilus, -i (s. ), prince. 
religio, -nis (s. ), rdiyion. 
relinquo, -ere, -liqui (vb.), 

reliquiae, -arum (s.), rem- 
reliquus, -a -um (adj.), re- 

remedium, -i (s. ), remedy. 
remitto, -ere, -misi (vb.), send 

hack, (jive back. 
repente (advb.), suddenly. 
repercussus, -a, -um (adj. pp. 

of reperuutio), beaten hack. 

repercutio, -ere, -cussi (vb.), 

hiut liack. 
reperio, -iie, repperi (vb. ), 

7)ieet with, fl lid. 
repleo, -ere, -plevi (vb.), Jill 

up again. 
reprimo, -ere, -pressi (vb. ), 

check, rejf.ress. 
res, rei (s.), thing, event, busi- 
ness, exploit, issue, struggle. 
resisto, -ere, -stiti (vb.), stand 

against, resist. 
resono, -are, -avi (vl). ), 

respondeo, -ere, -spomli(vb. ), 

answer, reply, correspond 

responsum, -i (s. ), ansxoer, 

reply (respondeo). 
restituo, -ere, -ui {\h.), restore. 
retineo, -ei-e, -ui (vb.), re^am. 
revertoero, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

dash back. 
reverto, -ere, -verti (vb.), 

return, turn back. 
rex, -gis (s.), king. 
rhinoceros, -otis (s.), rhino- 

rigeo, -ere (-ui) (vb.), be stiff, 

be frozen. 
ripa, -ae (s.), hank. 
robur, -oris (s. ), strength. 
rubeo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), be red, 

ruber, -ra, -rum (adj.), red. 
rudis, -e (adj.), inexperienced, 

rough, unpractised. 
rumor, -is (s.), rumour, talk, 

ruo, -ere, -i (vb. ), charge, rush. 
rupes, -is (s.), rock. 
rtirsus (advb.), again. 


QUINT US cunrrus uufus 


sacrlficium, -i (s.), mcrifice. 
saepe (advb.), oJ't<n. 
saevio, -ire, -ii (vb. ), rage. 
sagitta, -ae (s.), arrow. 
Sagittarius, -i (s. ), archer. 
saltern (advb.), at li'an(, at 

any rate. 
saltUB, -lis (s. ), pajin. 
salubris, -re (adj.), iDhole-wme, 

salus, -tis (s.), safety. 
Samaxus, -i (s. ), Saniaxun. 
sancio, -ire, saiixi (vb. ), 

sane (advb.), at all, by any 

meanft, quite. 
sanguis, -inis (vb.), blood. 
sapiens, -tis (adj.), nine. 
sapientia, -ae (s. ), philotiophy. 
satis (advb.), enouijh, quite. 
saucius, -a, -urn (adj.), 

saxum, -i (s. ), rork, st07ie. 
scio, -re, -vi (vb.), know. 
scriba, -ae (s. ), clerk, necretary. 
scite (advb.), .ski/fully. 
Scytbae, -arum (s.), the 

se, sui (reflex, pron.), himself, 

herself, itself, themselves. 
secius (advb.), otherwise. 
secundus, -a, -uin (adj.), 

second, next. 
securis, -is (s. ), axe. 
sed (conj.), but. 
sedes, -is (s.), home, settlement. 
segnis, -e (adj.), slw/yish, 

segniter (advb.), sloifly, 


segnlus (advb.), more slowly, 

semen, -inis (s. ), seed. 
semet (reflex, pron.), himself, 

herself, itself, themselves. 
semetipsum (reflex, pron.), 

himself (emphatic form of 

' se'). 
semper (advb.), always, 
senectus, -utis (s.), old aejc 
seni, -ae, -a (adj. num. dist.), 

six ajnece. 
senior, -is (s. ), old man (conip. 

of senex, old). 
sensim (advb.), (jraducdly. 
sentio, -ire, -sensi {\h.),fetl, 

separo, -are, -avi (vb. ), 

Septimus, -a, -uni (adj.), 

sepulclirum, -i (s. ), buryinr/- 

sequor, -ui, secutus (vb. ), 

serius, -a, -um (adj.), serious. 
sermo, -nis (s. ), conversation. 
servo, -air, -avi (vb. ), keep. 
sextus decimus (adj.), six- 
sic (advb.), so, in such a ivay. 
sicco, -are, -avi (vb.), dry up, 

sicut (conj. a.dvh. ), jnst as. 
sicuti (conj. advb.), a-s, just 

sidus, -oris (s.), star, heavenly 

signatus, -a, -um (adj.), 

stamped, coined. 
signum, -i (s. ), signal. 
silentium, -i (s.), silence. 



silva, -ae (s.), growth, wood. 
silvestris, -e (adj.), wooded. 
similis, -e (adj.), like. 
simplicitas, -talis (s. ), sim- 

plkity, candour. 
simpliciter (advb.), candidly, 

simul (advb.), at the same 

simulacrum, -i (s. ), image, 

simulo, -are, -avi (vb. ), pre- 

sine (prep. abl. ), loithout. 

singuli, -ae,-a (dist. num. adj.), 
one each. 

Sisocostus, -i (s.), Sisocost^^s. 

sisto, -§re, stiti (vb.), stop. 

situs, -us (s. ), site, position, lie. 

situs, -a, -urn (adj.), situated. 

sive ... sive (conj.), whether ... 

socius, -a, -um (adj. ), friendly ; 
(s.)_, ally. 

sol. -is (s. ), sun. 

solea, -ae (s. ), slipper. 

soleo, -ere, solitus (vb. ), he 

solidior, -us (adj. conip. of 
solidus), more stable, reli- 
able, permanent. 

solum, -i (s.), soil, earth. 

solum (advb.), only. 

solve, -ere, solvi (vb.), loose, 
dissolve, break up. 

somnus, -i (s.), sleep. 

sonus, -i (s.), sound. 

sopitus, -a, -um (adj. ), drowsy. 

spatiosus, -a, -um (adj.), 

spatium, -i (s.), ■<ipace, width, 

species, -ei (s.), look, appear- 
spectaculum, -i (s.), sigh/, 

specto, -are, -avi (vb.), look 

at, face, watch, study. 
speculor, -ari, -atus (vb.), 

scout, reconnoitre. 
spemo, -ere, sprevi (vb. ), 

spas, -ei (s. ), hope. 
spiculum, -i (s.), head of a 

shaft, point. 
spire, -are, -avi (vb. ), breathe. 
spissus, -a, -um (adj.), thick. 
spolio, -are, -avi (vb. ), spoil, 

sponte (advb.), of one's own 

accord (abl. of spons). 
stadium, -i (s.), stade, furlong 

(about one ninth of an 

English mile). 
stagno, -are, -avi {\\>.), form 

pools, flow. 
static, -nis (s. ), station, jtost, 

statuo, -ere, -i (vb. ), set up, 

stand, fx, determine. 
status, -a, -um (adj.), settled, 

stemo, -ere, stravi(vb. ),<re«(Z 

down, scatter. 
stipendium, -i (s.), tribute. 
stipes, -itis (s. ), trunk. 
sto, -are, steti (vb. ), stand, 

strenue (advb.), furiously. 
strepitus. -us (s.), sound. 
stridor, -is (s. ), trmnpeting. 
stringo, -6re, -nxi (yh.), 

graze, wash. 
I struo, -ere, struxi (vb.), build. 


QViNTUs cvnrius rufus. 

suadeo, -ere, suasi (vb.), re 

coiniiK 11(1, smiiicsl. 
sub (prep. aco. oral)l.), under 

next, to. 
subeo, -iie, -ii (vb. ), go undi^r 

(JO past, enter. 
subigo, -ere, -egi (vb.), nuh 

subinde (advb.), in .lucce-ssion, 

-6 (adj.), highest 

-ere, -misi (vl). ) 
(submittere se 




subsisto, -ere, -stiti (vb.) 

halt, he-sitate. 
succedo, -ere, -cessi (vb.), sue 

ceed, replace. 
sucus, -i (s.), plant. 
sum, esse, fui (vb.), be. 
summa, -ae (s.), chief part, 

principal part, strength. 
summus, -a, -um (adj.), very 

great, important, highest, 

sumo, -ere, -mpsi (vb. ), 

adopt, take. 
super (prep, ace), above, over, 

after (advlj. ), aloft, up. 
superbe (advb.), proudly, con- 

superior, -us (adj.), higher, 

superne (advb), /row above. 
supero, -are, -avi(vb. ), cross. 
supervenio, -ire, -veni (vb. ), 

cone up in support, rein- 
supplicium, -i (s. ), torture, 

supra (advb.), above, Jxfore. 
sura, -ae (s. ), calf (oit a leg). 

sustineo, -C-re, -ui (vb. ), tmi- 

suus, -a, -um (adj.), his, hers, 

its, their. 
Symmachus, -i (s. ), Syni- 



tabemaculum, -i (s. ), tent. 

tabulata, -oruiu (h.), Jiooring. 

talentum, -i (s.), talent (a sum 
(jr weight of money). 

talis, -e (adj.), such, the fol- 

tamen (conj.), however. 

tamquam (advb. or conj.), a-s 

tandem (advb.), at length, at 

tantum (advb. ), oidy, so much, 

tantus, -a, -um (adj.), so 

tardius (advb. comp. of 
tarde), inore slowly, some- 
what slowly. 

tardus, -a, -um (adj.), slow. 

Tauron, -is (s. ), Tauron. 

taurus, i (s. ), bull. 

Taxiles, -is (s. ), Taxiles. 

tectum, -i (s. ), roof, shelter, 
tent, building, covering. 

tego, -ere, texi (vb.), pro- 
tect, cover. 

telum, -i (s. ), shaft, dart, boll, 

temeritas, -tatis (s. ), rcushness, 

tempestas, -tatis (s.), storm. 

tempto, -are, -avi (vb. ), try, 

tempus, -oris (s.),time,seaso7i. 



temulentus, -a, -nm (adj.), 

teneo, -ere, -ui (vb. ), hohl, 

check, re-'itrain. 
tener, -a, -um (adj.), soft. 
tenuis, -e (adj.), diijiit. 
tergum, -i (s.), back. 
terra, -ae (s.), land. 
terreo,-ere,-ui {\h.), frighten. 
terribilis, -e (adj.), fvarfid, 

ie rrible, formidable, alarm- 

terror, -is (s.), terror, panic. 
tertius, -a, -um (adj.), third. 
Tlirax, -cis (s. ), a Thracian. 
timeo, -ere, -ui (vb. ),/ea?-. 
timor. -is (s. ), terror, panic. 
tolerabilis, -e (adj.), tolerable. 
tondeo, -ere, totondi (vb. ), 

tormentum, -i (s.), catajmlt 

(engine for throwing stones, 

spears, etc.), torment, tor- 
torrens (adj.), floioincj fast, 

tot (adj.), so many. 
totidem (adj.), so many, just 

as many. 
totus, -a, -um (adj.), the 

whole, all. 
trabs, -is (s.), beam. 
trado, -ere, -didi (vb.), hand, 

pass, report. 
traho, -ere, -traxi (vb.), draw, 

traicio, -6re, -ieci (vb. ), throw 

across, transpo7-t. 
transeo, -ire, -ii (vb.), go 

ncrosf:, pass. 
transfuga, -ae (s.), deserter, 


transitus, -us (s.), crossing. 

transno, -are, -avi (vh.), sivim 

transporto, -are, -avi (vb.), 

triduum, -i (s. ), s/Jace of three 

triginta (adj.), thirty. 

tristis, -e (adj.), melancholy. 

trucido, -are, -avi (vb. ), 
slaughter, bntcher. 

truncus, -a, -um (adj.), 
chopped, truncated. 

tuba, -ae (s.), tmimpet. 

tueor, -eri, -itus (vb.), guard, 
watch over. 

tumultuo, -are, -avi (vb. ), be 
in an uproar. 

tunc (advb. conj.), then. 

turbo, -are, -avi (vb. ), stam- 
pede, throiv into confusion. 

turibulum, -i (s. ), censer. 

turma, -ae (s.), squadron. 

turris, -is (s.), tower. 

tutela, -ae (s.), defence, pro- 

tuto (advb.), safely. 

tutus, a, um, (adj.), safe. 

tympanum, -i (s.), drum. 


ubi (conj. advb.), where, 

ubique (advb.), everywhere. 
ullus, -a, -um (adj. or prou. ), 

any, anyone. 
ulterior, -us (adj. ),y"Mr</^er. 
ultimus, -a, -um (adj.), 

furthest, last. 
ultio, -nis (s.), revenge. 
ultra (prep, ace), beyond. 



ululo, -are, -avi (vb.), howl. 
umquam (advb.), ever. 
unda, -ae (s. ), wave. 
unde (iulvb.), whence. 
undique (advb.), on ail .sidex, 

on every side. 
universus, -a, -uni (adj.), th( 

whole, all, in a ho'ly. 
imus, -a, -um (adj.), one, 

alone, only. 
urbs, -is (s.), city. 
urgeo, -ere, ursi (vb.), urge 

on, press on or against. 
uro, -6re, ussi (vb.), bum. 
usque (conj. or advb.), as jar 

usurpo, -are, -avi (vb.), iwe. 
usus, -ris(s. ), use, value. 
ut (conj.), so that. 
utcumque (advb.), howsoever. 
uterque, -raque, -rumque(adj. 

or pron.), each of two (utri- 

que pi. each side). 
uti (conj.), as. 
utique (advb.), at any rate. 
utor, -i, usus (vb.), v^e, take 

utrimque (advb.), on both 



vacuus, -a, -um (adj.), empty. 

vadum, -i (s. ), shoal, ford. 

vagor, -ari, -atus (vb. ), wan- 

validus, -a, -um (adj.), stout, 

valitudo, -inis (s. ), health. 

varius, a, -um (adj.), various, 

vas, vasis (s.), ve-isel (pi. 
vasa, vasoruin). 

vastus, -a, -um (adj.), vast. 
vehementer (advb. ), seriously, 

fiercely, intensely (comp. 

vehiculum, -i (s. ), rart, wagon. 
vebo, -ere, vexi (vb.), brimj, 

vel ... vel (conj.), either ...or. 
velo, -are, -avi (vb.), wrap, 

velocitas, -tatis (a.), swiftness. 
velut (conj. or advb-.), us 

venatus, -us (s. ), hunting. 
veneratio, -nis (s. ), reverence, 


venia, -ae (s.), pardon. 
venio, -ire, veni (vb.), come. 
ventus, -i (s. ), wind. 
vero (advb. or conj.), indeed, 

vertex, -icis (s.), whirlpool, 

eddy, top, stunmit. 
verto, -ere, verti (vb.), turn. 
verus, -a, -um (adj.), true, 

vestio, -ire, -ii (vb.), clothe. 
vestis, -is (s.), clothing, 

veto, -are, -ui (\\).), forbid. 
vetustas, -tatis (s. ), old age, 

vetustus, -a, -um (adj.), 

via, -ae(s. ), way, path, method. 
vicis (gen. of defective sub- 
stantive, no nominative), 

pi. vices, changes. 
victor, -is (s. ), conqueror. 
victoria, -ae (s. ), victory. 
video, -ere, virli (vb. ), see. 
vincio, -ire, vinxi (vb. ), bind. 



vlnco, -ere, vici (vb.), conqn<r. 

vinculum, -i(s. ), bond, fas/ til- 

yinum, -i (s.), wine. 

vlolentius (advb. comp. vio- 
lentei'), mo)-e violently. 

violo, -are, -avi (vb.), injtire. 

vir, -i (s.), man. 

virtus, -tutis (s.), bravery, 
prowess, worth. 

vis, vis (s. ), strength, force, 
7nass, shower (pi. vires). 

viso, -6re, visi (vb.), visit, 
inspect, see. 

vlsus, -us (s. ), sight. 

vita, -ae (s.), life. 

vitis, -is (s.), vine. 

vitium, -i (s.), vice, weakness. 
vivarium, -i (s.), park (for 

keeping live animals), 
vivus, -a, -um (adj.), alive. 
vix (advb.), scarcely, hardhj. 
voco, -are, -avi (vb.), call. 
volo, velle, volui (vb.), wish. 
vorago, -inis (s. ), gully, chasm. 
votum, -i (s. ), prayer. 
vox, -cis (s.), voice. 
vulgo, -are, -avi (vb.), spread, 

vnlnero, -are, -avi (vb.), 

vulnus, -eris (s.), loound. 
vultus, us (s. ), face, 'oua 

tenance, expression. 



PottSvo, Eii,'htecnpciicc I'ach. 

The following contain Introduetious, Note8, ;uid Vocabularies, and in 
some cases Exercises :— 
Accidence, Latin, and Exercises arranged for Beginners. By w., M.A., und C. G. Duffiki.d, M.A. 
Aeschylus.— PUOMKTHKU8 VINCTUS. By Rev. H. M. Stephrnson, M.A. 
Arrlan.— SI'XECTIONS. With E.\eicises. By Rev. John Bond, M.A., and 

Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A 
Aulus GeUius, Stories from. Adapted for Beginners. With Exercises. 

By Uev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 
Caesar.— THE Helvetian war. Selections from Book I., adapted for 
Heginnei-s. Witli Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A.,and C.G. Duffielp, M.A. 
THE INVASION OF BRITAIN. Selections from Books IV. and V., 

adapted for Betriuners. With Exercises. By the same. 
SCENES FROM BOOKS V. and VI. By C. Colbeck, .M.A. 
THE GALLIC WAR. Book 1. Bv Rev. A. S. Walpolk, M.A. 
Books II. and III. By the Rev. W. Q. Ruthkrford, M.A., LL.D. 
Book IV. By Clement Brtans, M.A. 

Book V. By 0. Colbecr, .M.A., Assistant Master at HaiTow. 
Book VI. By 0. Colbeck, M.A. 

Book VII. By Rev. J. Bond. M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
THE CIVIL WAR. Book I. .Bv M. Montoomert, M.A. 
Cicero.— DE aKNBCTUTE. By E. f3. Shuckbcrqh, M.A. 
D3 AMICITIA. Bv the same. 
aTORIES OF RO'.MAN HISTORY. Adapted for Beginners. With 

Exercises. Bv Rev. Q. E. Jeanb, M.A., and A. V. Jones, M.A. 
PRO ARCHIA. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 
CurtiUS(QuintUS).— SELECTIONS.— Adapted for Beginners. With Notes, 

Vocabulary, and Exercises. By F. Coverley Smith. 
Euripides.- ALCESTI.S. By Rev. M. A Bayfield, M.A. 
MEDEA. By Rev. M. A. Bayfield, M.A. 

HECUBA. By Rev. J. Bokd, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
EutropiUS.— Adapted for Beginners. Wi<h Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A. 

;\nd 0. G. DuFFiEi.D, M.A. Books I. and II. By the same. 
Exercises in Unseen Translation in Latin. By w. Welch, m.a. 

and Rev. C. G. Ditkifld, M.A. 
Herodotus, Tales from. Attii ized. By G. S. Farnell, M.A. 
Homer.— ILL\U. Bk. I. By Rev. J. Bond, m.a., and Rev. A.S.Walpolb.M.A. 
Book VI. By Walter Leaf, Litt.D., and Rev. M. A. Bayfield. 
Book XVIII. By S. R. Jambs, M.A., As^^istant Master at Eton. 
Book XXIV. Bv W. Leaf. Litt.D., and Rev. M. A. Bayfiult, M.A. 
ODYSSEY. Book I. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A. , and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
Horace.- ODES. Books L, II., in. and IV. separately. ByT. E. Page, M.A. 
Livy.— Book I. By H. M. Stephenson, M.A. 
Book V. By M. Alford. 

Book XXI. Adapted from Mr. Capes's Edition. By J. E. Melhuish, ILA. 
Book XXII. Adapted from Mr. Capes'.s Edition. By J. E. Mklhuish, M.A. 
SELECTIONS FROM BOOKS V. and VI. By W. Cecil Lamino, M.A. 
THE HANNIBALIAN WAR. Books XXI. and XXIL Adapted by 

Books XXIII. and XXIV. Adapted by E. P. Coleridge, B.A. 
THE SIEGE OP SYRACUSE. Adapted for Beginners. With Exercises. 

By G. Richards, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
LEGENDS OF ANCIENT ROME. Adapted for Beginners. With 
Exercises. By H. Wilkinson, M.A. 
lUCian. — EXTRACTS FROM LUCIAN. With Exercises. By Rev. J. Bond, 

M.A., and Rev. A. S. W^alpole, M.A. 
HISTORY. With Exercises. Bv G. S. Farnell, M.A. 
Vol. I. GREEK LIVES. By H. Wilkis.son M.A. 



Ovid.— SEI,K(;T10NS. By E. 8. Shockburoh, M.A. 


Ijy U. Wilkinson, M.A. 

J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. 8. Wai.pole, M.A. 
TRISTIA. Book I. By E. S. Shuckburou, M.A. 
Book III. By E. S. Siiuckburoh, M.A. 
Passages for Greek Translation for Lower Forms By 0. IL 

I'kacock, M.A., and E. W. W. Bixl, M.A. 
Phaedrus.- FABLES. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

si:LECT FABLES. Adapted for Beginners. By Rev. A. S. Walpoi.k, M..\. 
Pliny.— SE1,K(JT10NS Ilmstrative of Roman Life. By C. U. Kkknk, W. A. 

LKTrEUS. I.— XII. By C. J. Phillips, B.A. 
SaUust.— JUGURTHINE WAR. By E. P. Coleridok, B.A. 

THE CATALINE. By Q. H. Nall, M A. 
Suetonius.— STORIES OF THE CAESARS; By H. Wii.kinsok, M.A. 
Ch3. 8'.<-118 and 128-138. With Exercises. Bv F. H. Couson, M.A. 
Books II. and IIL By W. T. Suithf,rt, M.A., and A. S. Graves, B.A. 
Book VII. Athenian Disaster in Sicily. By E. C. Marchant, M.A. 
Valerius Maximus. By C. H. Ward, M.A. 
VirgiL— SELECTIONS. By B. S. Shuckbui^oh, M.A. 
IJUCOLICS. Bv T. E. Pace, M.A. 

GEORGICS. Book L By T. E. Pagi-, M.A. Book IIL By T. E. Page, M.A. 
Book II. By Rev. J. H. Shrine, M.A. Book IV. Bv T. E. Page, M.A. 
AENEID. Book L By Rev. A. S. Walpolb, M.A. 

Book L By T. E. Page, M.A. Book VIL By Rev. A. Calvert.M.A. 

Book XL By T. B. Page, M.A. Book VIII. By Rev. A. Calvert.M.A. 

Book HI. By T. E. Pack, M.A. Book IX. By Rev. H. M. Stephen- 
Book IV. By Rev. H. M. son, M.A. 

Stephenson, M.A. Book X. Bv S. G. Owen, M.A. 

Book V. By Rev. A. Calvert, Book XL B"y T. B. Paok, M.A. 

M.A. Book XII. By T. E. Page, M.A. 

Book VI. By T. E. Page, M.A. 
Xenophon.— •■ANABASIS. Selections, adapted for Beginners. With 
Exercises. By W. Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
Book I. With Exercises. By E. A. Wells, M.A, 
Book I. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, M. .\. 
Book II. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, .M.A. 
Book III. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 
Boor IV. By Rev. E. D. Stone, M.A. 
Book V. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 
Book VI. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M. A. 
Book VII. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A 
SELECTIONS FROM BK. IV. With Kxercises. By Rev. E. D. Stone, M.A. 
SELECTIONS from the CYROPAEDIA. Exercises. B> A. H. Cookr, M.A. 
TALKS FROM THE CYROPAEDIA. With Exercises. BvC. H. Keene, M..\. 

The following contain Introductions and Notes, but no Vocabulary :— 
Cicero.— SELECT letters. Bv Rev. G. E. Jeans, M.A. 
Herodotus.— SELECTIONS FROM BOOKS VII. and VIIL Tub Expeditiosi 

OK Xerxes. By A. H. Cooke, M.A. 

Rev. W. J. V. Baker, M.A. 
Terence.— SCENES FROM THE ANDRIA. By F. W. Cornish, M.A., 

Vice-Provost of Eton. 

Selecred by Rev. Herbert Kynaston, D.D. 

By C. E. Graves, M.A. 


M.ia i.oj 





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